The Person-Centered Journal

The Person-Centered Journal (PCJ) is the oldest continuously running person-centered peer-reviewed publication in English. It is sponsored by the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach (ADPCA) to promote and disseminate scholarly thinking about person-centered principles, practices, and philosophy.

The journal editor can be contacted via Authors interested in submitting manuscripts are welcome to email article submissions to this address.

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We welcome enquiries and hope The Person-Centered Journal engages you!

Instructions for Authors

The PCJ welcomes original content for around the world. Our Instructions for Authors page gives details how how work can be submitted.

The PCJ Archive

The PCJ Archive is an open-access resource that ADPCA is proud to offer worldwide. It comprises free downloadable copies of the Person-Centered Journal. 

…And would I dare to dance? An aesthetic responseJeanne P. Stubbs1995021View

“Counselling as a social process”: A person-centered perspective on a social constructionist approachIvan Ellingham2000072View

This paper presents a critical examination from a person-centered perspective of an approach to counseling influenced by the social constructionist thought of Kenneth Gergen. The general postmodernist character of such social constructionism is considered and critiqued, as are certain implications for counselor training and practice. The position is taken that any attempt to introduce social constructionist ideas into the framework of person-centered counseling should be done in a way that does not compromise the fundamental vision of Carl Rogers, its main architect.

“I Didn’t Know You Felt That Way”: The Practice of Client-Centered Couple and Family TherapyKathryn A. Moon, Susan Pildes2019View

Our client-centered counseling practice with couples and families is described. The nondirective attitude is our bedrock value. Our empathic understanding follows each person’s expressed thoughts and feelings. With more people in the room, the situation is ripe for misunderstandings. Wanting to allow for correction from anyone present, we clarify our understanding of individual experiences and tend to share out loud the way we are following and understanding. In individual counseling, misunderstandings do not occur as often and this degree of explicit transparency seems less called for. Whether with an individual or with a couple or family, we are responsive to questions and requests.

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“Wasn’t I Good?” An Encounter on the Way to Understanding the Person-Centered ApproachMarsha A. Smith2004111, 2View

I present reflections on a person-centered encounter with a client while a graduate student, including a discussion of my spirituality, personal understanding of good, and choice of the Person-Centered Approach as a professional foundation. I had read, talked with my professors and colleagues, and examined my own experiences in order to understand the Person Centered Approach (PCA). This seems now to have been a prelude to an encounter that stays in my heart, demanding my attention—an encounter that integrated my spiritual and person-centered self.

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A case for client-centered career counselingJo Cohen1998051View

A child’s journey through lossDonna Rogers, Paula J. Bickham1995022View

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A client-centered demonstration interview with Ms SBarbara Temaner Brodley1997041View

A Client-Centered Psychotherapy PracticeBarbara Temaner Brodley2019242View

Barbara Temaner Brodley describes her practice of client-centered therapy. She gives attention to the nondirective attitude, responding to a client’s questions, spontaneous and therapist-frame-of-reference responses, and the empathic understanding process. Excerpts from two therapy transcripts are included

A Client’s DiaryJules Seeman1995022View

A Comparison of American and Chinese Counseling Students’ Perceptions of CounselingHsiao-Ping Cheng, Richard C. Page1992011View

This study assessed the differences between the ways that counseling students in two different countries, Taiwan and the United States, perceived counseling. The evaluative and potency scales of a semantic differential were used to compare the attitudes of these students related to counseling and certain counseling related variables. One finding of this study was that the Chinese students evaluated counseling, group counseling and counselors more positively than the American students while the American students rated the potency of all of these concepts higher than the Chinese students.

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A dearth of suds for Davey: A therapist’s thoughts during a child therapy sessionMoon Kathryn A.2002092View

A Dedication to C. H. PattersonJerold Bozarth2006131, 2View

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A demonstration interviewJeanne P. Stubbs1995021View

A discussion of contributions by Gregory Bateson and Carl Rogers via an analysis of two seminal papersPatric Pentony1994013View

The paper begins with an examination of the logical premises on which Gregory Bateson and his associates based their “Double Bind” hypothesis of the etiology of schizophrenia. It goes on to demonstrate that in the specification of the hypothesis, the authors failed to adhere strictly to these premises with the result that confusion arose as to what was meant by a “double bind.” Having located the source of confusion the paper then takes up Ackerman’s point that the classical paradoxes, in which an incongruity in messages at different levels is buried in a single statement, is not an appropriate model for understanding interactional sequences. His alternative showing how classificatory type messages buried in interactional sequences can result in entangled communication is developed both to indicate the core of value in the “double bind” approach and to outline the wider implications of the issues involved. These wider implications are then brought out in an analysis of a logical defect in Carl Rogers’s paper on “The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Therapeutic Personality Change.” Finally it is shown that the “Reflection of Feeling Response” developed by Rogers and his students utilizes different levels of communication in achieving its effects.

A Learner’s Guide to Person-Centered EducationJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2006131, 2View

The author provides an orientation to person-centered education for use by educators with their students. The orientation is informed by reviews of both theory and research on person-centered education and is relevant to secondary, undergraduate, and especially graduate programs. A brief review of the effectiveness of person-centered education and its primary goals is followed by a one-page handout. The handout is intended to provide a basis for discussion and informed consent to facilitated learning.

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A Literature Review Concerning Effectiveness of Multicultural Play-Based Interventions with ChildrenHollie Sykes, Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White, R. Paul Maddox II2016231, 2View

Research has demonstrated that individual play therapy, group play therapy, and filial therapy are effective when working with children; however most research is focused on European American samples and worldviews. Children play out themes to express their worldview and may have distinctive themes in various cultures, but all children may struggle to feel acceptance and freedom to express themselves if they don’t identify with the helper, the toys, and/or techniques being usedin the intervention. This critical literature review examines the results of previous research on the effectiveness of play-based interventions in multicultural settings. Interventions with children of diverse backgrounds reviewed include: group play therapy, especially with African Americans; school based play therapy, especially with Latinos, and filial therapy, especially with Asian American samples. The paper also looks at the sparse research on the training of play therapists in multicultural issues. The results examined are generally positive, indicating that play-based interventions are an effective method of treatment with diverse children, but research is limited. There is a continued need for extensive research of multicultural play- based interventions with children.

Keywords: play therapy, multicultural, filial therapy .

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A new explanation for the beneficial results of client-centered therapy: the possibility of a new paradigmFred M. Zimring1995022View

In this paper the usual idea that our psychological problems are caused by unknown feelings and experiencing is questioned and an alternative understanding of the reason for our problems is proposed. More specifically, Rogers’s explanation that the success of his methods occurs because of increased awareness of unknown experience is questioned. Instead, it is proposed that our problems are due to the nature of our internal framework, rather than to feelings of which we are not aware. Our problems are seen as arising when our framework incorporates the more objective standards of the world and fails to develop the more subjective aspects. How having a more subjective or objective internal world affects our experience is discussed and how the “necessary and sufficient” conditions and the “mini-culture” of client-centered therapy develops these subjective aspects is described.

A person-centered application to test anxietyLaurie L. Silverstein1998052View

Literature examining the treatment of test anxiety over the last few decades focuses primarily on the efficacy of cognitive and behavioral interventions (e.g., Allen, 1972; Meichenbaum, 1972, 1977). Over time, interventions have become even more symptom-specific (e.g., Broota & Sanghvi, 1994; Gosselin & Matthews, 1995). However, some researchers suggest that anxiety-focused approaches nay not improve performance, and skills acquisition and training nay not reduce anxiety (e.g., Klinger, I984; Paulman & Kennelley, I984). While some studies suggest that person-centered variables enhance therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of test anxiety, almost no literature exists comparing the efficacy of these different approaches (e.g., Ryan & Moses, 1979; Payne, 1985). A case summary describes a person-centered application to the treatment of test anxiety as a nondirective, individualized alternative to symptom-specific modalities.

A Person-Centered Approach to Individuals Experiencing Depression and AnxietyLeslie A. McCulloch, Michael M. Tursi2004111, 2View

The Person-Centered Approach (PCA) has been effectively used with clients experiencing a wide variety of severe psychiatric symptoms and is appropriate for those experiencing depression and anxiety. The authors outline a study, which investigated the effectiveness of the Person-Centered Approach (PCA) with individuals experiencing depression and anxiety. Participants were pre- and post-tested with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results are mixed regarding the effectiveness of the PCA and support the high co-morbidity rates of depression and anxiety symptoms reported in the literature.

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A Person-Centered Approach to Master’s Counseling Programs Within Accrediting StandardsHayley L. Stulmaker2015221, 2View

Counselor education has been focused on learning new techniques and strategies to improve teaching with content centered on meeting CACREP standards. The combination of these two components ofmaster’s programs has led to a reductionist view of counselor education. A person-centered approach to education is presented,culminating in a proposed design for a master’s program with anunderlying person-centered philosophy within the CACREP standards. Having an educational philosophy within a program can help strengthen student learning and give educators direction and intention behind their teaching, ultimately producing well-rounded learners.

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A person-centered approach to the use of projectives in counselingLarry Schor2003101View

Can the very process of creating stories about pictures and discussing the emergent themes with a trained psychotherapist be helpful in facilitating self-understanding and fostering psychological growth? If so, what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for this process to occur? Following a brief discussion of the fundamental principles surrounding the theoretical construct of apperception, I will explain and advocate for a client-centered approach in the use of projectives to facilitate client self-understanding in a collaborative therapeutic relationship.

A person-centered journey to warm springsD. B. Altschul, K. E. Steadman1996031View

Graduate students of Jerold Bozarth experience their first person-centered community meeting in Warm Springs, Ga. Their observations are recorded.

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A Person-Centered Life–and DeathGrace Harlow Klein2012191, 2View

A reflection on the life and death of psychologist Armin Klein is writtenbyDr.GraceHarlowKlein. Astatementofexperiencefrom several of his clients who helped in his care at the end of his life is included. One of his clients wrote extensively of her experience, “In Therapy with Armin.”

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A person-centered view of depression: Women’s experiencesCharlene K. Schneider, William B. Stiles1995021View

Openness to another’s experience is fostered by broad knowledge, not by ignorance. Diagnostic information can obscure a client’s experiences if it is taken as definitive, but it can enlarge a therapist’s repertoire of understandings if it is used tentatively. Knowledge of experiences that occur frequently among people who share a diagnosis can sensitize a therapist to experiences that a particular client may try to convey. Four women previously treated for depression were interviewed intensively in search for common experiences. Within their different personalities, backgrounds, and personal circumstances, these particular women seemed to share a constellation of emotional experiences that could be organized around their history of sexual and physical or emotional abuse.

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A Person-Centered View of Diversity In South AfricaFrans Cilliers2004111, 2View

The work of Carl Rogers and Ruth Sanford in South Africa during the 1980’s was continued in the form of person-centered diversity awareness workshops. This article describes action and qualitative research on participants’ experiences during and after these workshops. Post workshop interviews indicated that organizational change agents and consultants were exposed to new ways of facilitating learning opportunities which are not based on using classroom techniques and methods, but on their own realness, respect for and ability to put themselves in their client group’s frame of reference. The results highlighted South Africa’s never-ending journey of healing and the showed the need for South Africans’ to integrate race and gender splits, subgroup and individual identities, and denigrated and idealized parts of the self.

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A Rating System for Studying Nondirective Client-Centered Interviews—RevisedAnne Brody, Barbara Temaner Brodley, Jerome Wilczynski2008151, 2View

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A rehearsal for understanding the phenomenon of groupJohn Keith Wood1994013View

Because the literature regarding non-European, international, cross-cultural, transcultural,
leaderless large group workshops from the person-centered approach is so sparse, it is hoped that
this report may provide both valuable information on this phenomenon and encouragement for
future studies.

A rejoinder to person-centered psychotherapy: one nation, many tribesGarry Prouty2000072View

A Review of The Human Being Fully Alive: Writings in Celebration of Brian Thorne – Sometimes This Atheist Calls it CourageKathryn A. Moon2015221, 2View

Book Review of The Human Being Fully Alive: Writings in Celebration of Brian Thorne – Sometimes This Atheist Calls it Courage

Edited by Jeff Leonardi

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A Review of Therapist Limits in Person-Centred Therapy By Lisbeth SommerbeckValerie Wiley2016231, 2View

Book review of Therapist Limits in Person-Centred Therapy by LIsbeth Sommerbeck

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A structured learning exercise in person-centered empathy within a counselor training programJo Cohen Hamilton2001081, 2View

The structured exercise in empathic listening is designed to provide counselor trainees with an intensive and deliberate focus on the person-centered empathic process. By far the single most curative factor identified in counseling process and outcome research, empathy deserves lo be a key focus of counselor research and training. Current psychotherapy outcome research estimates of empathy’s variance in effecting client positive change occur in the 40% range. This learning exercise is decidedly a highly effective tool for enhancing counselor’s capacities to practice empathy; with minimal, if any observable adverse effect on student-selected participants. Qualitative findings from more than 200 counselor trainees over a ten year period, along with a sub-sample of 23 trainees’ quantitative results point to the value of the empathy exercise as an especially useful method in counselor empathy training. Experience with the large number of exercises being conducted by trainees suggests that rare instances of a need for one-on-one supervision do occur; and that therefore, the trainer-supervisor must be mindful of the progress, process, and outcome of each case. In-class periodic assessments of general progress, along with individual student meetings and initiation of follow-up as needed are recommended.

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A theoretical reconceptualization of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality changeJerold Bozarth1996031View

In this paper, Unconditional Positive Regard is presented as the primary condition of therapeutic personality change. Genuineness and Empathic Understanding are viewed as two contextual attitudes. The concept of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change is reconceptualized in a way consistent with this view. The reconceptualization entails (a) genuineness being viewed as a therapist state of readiness that enables the therapist to better experience the client with empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference and to experience unconditional positive regard towards the client; (b) empathic understanding being viewed as the action state of the therapist in which the client is accepted as he or she is at any given moment. The understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference by the therapist is viewed as the most optimal way for the client to experience unconditional positive regard; and (c) unconditional positive regard being viewed as the primary change agent in which the client’s needs for positive regard and positive self regard are met and the actualizing tendency of the individual is promoted.

A universal system of psychotherapyCecil H. Patterson1995021View

Currently it is generally accepted that existing theories and approaches to psychotherapy developed in Western cultures, are not applicable to other cultures. A model is proposed that, while based on certain theoretical and research foundations in Western culture, also recognizes and derives from universal drives, motivations and goals of all human beings, indeed of all living organisms. It is therefore neither time nor culture bound.

The model is developed in terms of three levels of goals: (1) the ultimate goal, common to all clients; (2) mediate goals, that allow for cultural and individual differences; and (3) the immediate goal, involving the therapy relationship. The therapist conditions necessary, and possibly sufficient, for the development of a relationship leading to the achievement of the achievement of the mediate and ultimate goals are defined.

Afterword [poem]John Keith Wood1997041View

Alzheimer’s and Authenticity: A Person-Centered Framework that Promotes Mutuality and ReciprocityClaudia J. Strauss2010171, 2View

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An accidental journey, the spiritual plane and a very late breakfastBarbara June Hunter2000071View

An evolutionary shift and emerging heroines/heroesPeggy Natiello2003101View

Evidence increasingly points to a global paradigm shift that is rapidly unfolding among us and causing grief, fear and confusion. The shift involves an entire reordering of the prevailing egocentric way of seeing and minding, and has enormous consequences for social, political, behavioral, environmental norms underlying our culture’s construction. This paper considers the difficulties of moving from a reductionistic view of the world to a more unitary view. The writer looks at the qualities of persons identified by spiritual leaders and social theorists as having the vision and courage to lead us forward. She reflects on attitudes of the person-centered approach as one clearly defined technology that can facilitate global dialogue and a shift in worldview.

An Example of Client-Centered Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress DisorderJon Rose2010171, 2View

This paper presents a rationale for offering Client-Centered Therapy to a female medical clinic patient with symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), who was not seeking psychotherapy. Her therapy is on-going, and her progress during the first three years is presented. It is thought that many, if not most, people with PTSD do not seek treatment. It is hoped that this paper will provide a useful model for reaching out to them. Client-Centered Therapy can help clients feel safe to live authentically and/or feel safe enough to pursue other treatments designed specifically for PTSD.

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An inquiry into child-centered therapyFreda Doster1996031View

This paper discusses the utilization of play therapy as an appropriate therapeutic method in the counseling of children. It identifies the theoretical basis of child-centered therapy, the attitudes necessary for the therapist, and the therapeutic conditions necessary for growth. It also outlines the limits which should be set in regards to child-centered therapy.

An Interview with Barbara Temaner Brodley About Client Centered SupervisionDaniel Metevier2019242View

An Interview with Barbara Temaner Brodley About Client-Centered SupervisionDaniel Metevier2019241, 2View

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An Introduction to Child-Centered Play TherapyHelen S. Hamlet, Lauren Moss2020251-2View

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Application of Carl Rogers’ psychology to the training of teachersJanina Janowska2002091View

Article Review: The Consumer Report StudyJeanne P. Stubbs1996031View

Jeanne P. Stubbs and Jerold D. Bozarth review Seligman’s article (APCA, December, 1995) on The Consumer Report Study of the effectiveness of psychotherapy (APA, November, 1995).

Asperger’s Syndrome: A Client-Centered ApproachDavid P. Buck, Michaella Buck2006131, 2View

The authors provide a historical and descriptive explanation of Asperger’s Syndrome. They assert that Client-Centered Therapy is appropriate with clients who lack the affective emotional relatedness between people. Also, they present a case study involving the application of Client- Centered Therapy with a client suffering from Asperger’s Syndrome.

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Associate Editor’s letter to the readersJerold Bozarth1997041View

Audio Tape Practice in EmpathyEric D. Macklin2001081, 2View

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Authors’ Response to Bohart and BozarthLisbeth Sommerbeck, Marvin Frankel2008151, 2View

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Bateson revisited the mind, families and AARonnie Barracato2002091View

Book & Article ReviewsJules Seeman1996031View

Jules Seeman reviews the books Celebrating the Other by E.E. Sampson and Women’s Growth in Connection by J.V. Jordan, et al. and the article The Person-Centered Approach: From Theory to Practice by Peggy Natiello.

Book Review of “Community Mental Health: A Practical Guide” by L. Mosher and L. BurtiJo Cohen1995021View

Book Review of “Theoretical Evolutions in person-centered/experiential therapy: Applications to schizophrenic and retarded psychoses” by G. ProutySara R. Wotman1995021View

Book Review of Against Therapy [and Announcements]Jeanne P. Stubbs1992011View

A book review by Jeanne Stubbs of Jeffrey Masson’s book Against Therapy.

This file also includes conference and program announcements.

Book Review of The Making of a TherapistLouis Cozolino2005121, 2View

Book review of Louis Cozolino’s The Making of a Therapist: A Practical Guide for the Inner Journey.

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Book Review, ‘The Quantum Society’Jerold Bozarth1994013View

Book Review: ‘Beyond Carl Rogers’June Ellis1996031View

Book Review: ‘Child-Centered Counseling and Psychotherapy’Ned L. Gaylin1996031View

Book Review: ‘Invitation to person-centered psychology’Barry Grant1996031View

Book Review: “Basics of Clinical Practice”Jo Cohen Hamilton2000072View

Review of Basics of Clinical Practice: A Guidebook for Trainees in the Helping Professions; by Martin, D. G. & Moore, A. D.

Book Review: “Carl Rogers’ Helping System: Journey and Substance” by Godfrey T. Barrett-Lennard.Kathryn A. Moon1999061View

Book Review: “Counseling the person beyond the alcohol problem”Brian Thorne2002091View

Book Review: “Creating contact, Choosing relationship: The dynamics of unstructured group therapy” by R. C. Page & D. N. BerkowKan V Chandras1995022View

Book Review: “Developing person-centered counseling” by Dave MearnsChris Caldwell1995022View

Book Review: “Family, Self, and Psychotherapy: A person-centered perspective”Paula Plageman2001081, 2View

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Book Review: “Family, Self, and Psychotherapy: A person-centered perspective”Leslie A. McCulloch2001081, 2View

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Book Review: “Finding your way as a counselor” by J. A. KottlerJoe M. Utay1998052View

Book Review: “Integrating Spirituality in Counseling: A manual for using the experiential focusing method” by E. HinterkopfBarry Grant1998052View

Book Review: “Person-Centered Communication” by A. S. DU Toit, H.D. Grobler & C. J. SchenckPaul Blanchard1998052View

Book Review: “Person-Centered Counselling Training” by Dave MearnsJo Cohen1999061View

Book Review: “Person-Centered Leadership: An American approach to participatory management” by Jeanne M. PlasJerold Bozarth1997041View

Book Review: “Person-Centered Therapy: A revolutionary paradigm” by Jerold BozarthGrace Hill1999061View

Book Review: “Politicizing the Person-Centered Approach: An Agenda for Social Change”Barry Grant2007141, 2View

Review of Politicizing the Person-Centered Approach: An Agenda for Social Change; Edited by Gillian Proctor, Mick Cooper, Pete Sanders, and Beryl Malcolm

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Book Review: “Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work”John H. Powell1998051View

Book Review: “Regarding Empathy”Rowena Gomez2003101View

Review of Regarding Empathy by Shelia Haugh and Tony Merry

Book Review: “Successful Psychotherapy: A loving, caring relationship”Arthur C. Bohart1998051View

Book Review: “The Psychotherapy of Carl Rogers: Cases and Commentary”Jo Cohen1998051View

Book Review: Beyond Therapy, Beyond ScienceMarianne Anderson1994012View

Book Review: Embracing Non-DirectivityLeslie A. Anderson2006131, 2View

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Book Review: Miracle Moments: The nature of the mind’s power in relationships and psychotherapyArthur C. Bohart2004111, 2View

This is fundamentally a book on a spiritual approach to psychotherapy and will be of particular interest to those who have a transpersonal bent. The book consists of two sections. In the first section, Santos reports on a series of interviews with famous therapists: Carl Rogers, Eugene Gendlin, Erving Polster, Virginia Satir, John Grinder, Robert Nemiroff, and Robert Stein. The rest of the book consists of Santos’ explication of his views of the nature of psychopathology and of therapy. His core idea about therapy is that change occurs through the occurrence of “miracle moments”—moments of fundamental and deep meeting…

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Book Review: Person-Centred Practice: Case Studies in Positive PsychologyLeslie A. McCulloch2008151, 2View

Book Review of Person-Centred Practice: Case Studies in Positive Psychology edited by Richard Worsley and Stephen Joseph.

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Book Review: The Client-Centred Therapist in Psychiatric ContextsLeslie A. McCulloch2004111, 2View

In my experience supervising graduate students in internships, I have observed that students who are humanistically-oriented, particularly those who are Person-Centered, struggle to integrate their theoretical approach into their internship work. They struggle with the predominance of the medical model in the field, the prevalence of cognitivebehavioral approaches in the research literature, and the dominance of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-IV Text Revision. They struggle with the idea that for each disorder there is a prescribed approach that is most effective. They struggle with how to interface with professionals with other orientations and within a system that seems biased away from their approach. They struggle with being taken seriously. And as the students struggle, so do professors, supervisors, fellow interns, staff, and other mental health

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Book Review: The Handbook of Person-Centered Psychotherapy and CounsellingJoseph Hulgus2008151, 2View

Book Review by Joseph Hulgus of The Handbook of Person-Centered

Psychotherapy and Counselling (Edited by Mick Cooper, Maureen O’Hara, Peter F. Schmid, and Gill Wyatt)

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Book Review: The three conditions across a cognitive divideJon Rose2003101View

Review of Talking to Alzheimer’s by Claudia Strauss

Book Review: Unstructured Group Therapy: Creating Contact, Choosing RelationshipLeslie A. McCulloch2006131, 2View

Review of Richard C. Page and Daniel N. Berkows’ Unstructured Group Therapy: Creating Contact, Choosing Relationship

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C. H. Patterson (1912-2006): Pat The ApostleIvan Ellingham2007141, 2View

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C. H. Patterson, In Loving MemoryJo Cohen Hamilton2006131, 2View

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Can I Believe in the Actualizing TendencyIan Fallows2007141, 2View

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Carl Rogers and Martin Buber in Dialogue: The Meeting of Divergent PathsCharles Merrill2008151, 2View

This paper will explore the thinking of Carl Rogers and Martin Buber as related to confirmation, acceptance and dialogue. The work of these seminal thinkers seems more closely connected than at first glance. Each valued authentic relationship and expressed their views to each other in a 1957 conversation or dialogue. I have also brought myself into the paper in a personal way, sharing my experience with dialogue and of being accepted and confirmed in relationship.

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Carl Rogers and Transpersonal PsychologyJohn Keith Wood1998051View

The claims that Carl Rogers was what is presently understood as a “transpersonal psychologist ” or that he had converted to a “transpersonal movement” by virtue of various late-in-life experiences are shown to be unwarranted.

To understand his complex relationship with these subjects, it is noted that Rogers did not conform with much of the behavior with which they are associated. Nevertheless, he did have, from the beginning of his work in client-centered therapy, experiences which must be considered congenial with the essence of the “transpersonal.”

The purpose of this article is to recognize the distinction between outward appearance and one’s legitimate inner experience and to encourage a deeper exploration of this difference.

Carl Rogers as Mystic?Joachim Schwarz1999061View

The authors invite the reader to a closer look at the person-centered approach within the increasing trend toward transpersonal approaches to therapy. The article addresses values in contrast to dogma and emphasizes the client’s freedom to self- determination in the context of spirituality.

Carl Rogers in Dialogue with Martin Buber: A New AnalysisKenneth N. Cissna, Rob Anderson1997041View

Carl Rogers was renowned for his work as a psychotherapist and facilitator. During his life, he engaged in a series of fascinating public dialogues with a number of other noted intellectuals (see Kirschenbaum & Henderson, 1989). In this essay, we summarize our studies of one of these remarkable conversations-an instance of what Michael Oakeshott (1975) aptly termed an “unrehearsed intellectual adventure” (p. 75)-between Carl Rogers and the philosopher of dialogue Martin Buber.

This 1957 public conversation was significant because through Rogers’s writings, especially following this meeting, many thousands of readers in the United States were introduced to Buber’s thought. In addition, the dialogue was a critical incident in the careers of both Buber and Rogers. Although it has been cited often to distinguish their approaches to dialogue, all previous commentators have assumed that Buber and Rogers were on equal footing and ignore the communicative process of the meeting in favor of analyzing its content.

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Carl Rogers’ ‘Congruence’ as an organismic; not a freudian conceptIvan Ellingham1999061View

The principal purpose of this paper is to illumine the extent to which Carl Rogers’ characterization of the central person-centered concept of congruence is couched in terms of a Cartesian-Newtonian, paradigmatic world-view mediated by the theoretical formulations of Sigmund Freud. Crucial problems in such a quasi-Freudian characterization of congruence are delineated demonstrative of a critical flaw in person-centered theory as a whole: its being a mix of concepts deriving from the discrepant Cartesian-Newtonian and organismic scientific paradigms. The re-formulation of congruence in organismic terms is envisaged as part of a general need to conceptualize all key person-centered concepts in such a fashion.

Central dynamics in client-centered therapy trainingDavid Mearns1997041View

This paper is the first of a series of publications which seek to stimulate dialogue on the issues involved in offering a professional level of training for client-centered therapists in a fashion which is both consistent with the person-centered approach as well as accountable to the professional world of therapists and clients. Rather then withdrawing from the world of mainstream education on the grounds that it is incompatible with person-centered philosophy, the writer prefers to use the person-centered approach to inform higher education. The present paper explores four training dynamics around “responsibility,” “self-acceptance,” the “individualizing of the curriculum” and the “individualization of assessment” as central to the relationship between trainees and Faculty.

Changing chronic problem behavior in primary schools: a client-centered ecosystemic approach for teachersKen Tyler1998052View

In the ecosystemic approach, if something changes in the interpersonal system, the problem behavior will change. The importance of using the core conditions in implementing the ecosystemic approach was demonstrated for two types of interventions, the first based on “positive attribution;” the second based on empathic response. Ecosystemics incorporated with the person-centered approach offers a range of techniques for addressing problem behaviors in schools.

Child-Centered Play Therapy, Learning From The Child Through Empathic ListeningChristine Storch2020251-2View

Classical creek “koinonia”, the psychonanalytical median group, and the large person-centered community group: dialogue in three democratic contextsKristin S. Sturdevant1995022View

Client-Centered Therapy – What Is It? What Is It Not?Barbara Temaner Brodley2019241, 2View

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Client-Centered Therapy – What Is It? What Is It Not?1Barbara Temaner Brodley2019View

Client-Centered therapy in the care of the mentally handicappedHans Peters1999061View

Regarding the treatment of mentally handicapped persons, three approaches toward treatment are possible. The first approach involves influencing the relationship between ward personnel and mentally handicapped persons. The second approach is the therapeutic treatment of mentally handicapped persons by means of mediation therapy, which means that the therapist is responsible for starting up, administering, revising and supervising treatment, but that the treatment itself is administered by ward personnel, parents and/or other persons. This implicitly means that, in imitation of Rogers, I consider empathic understanding and empathic responding as an attitude as well as a skill that can be learned. The third approach is treatment of the mentally handicapped person administered by the psychotherapist. In the following, I wish to elaborate on these three approaches. My work with mentally handicapped clients follows in a client-centered, as well as, a behavior-therapeutic frame of reference, and I am an advocate of a combination of methods (see e.g.., Peters, 1984, 1991, 1992 and 1999), I will hereby limit myself to the administration of client centered practice in the treatment of these persons.

Client-centered therapy: The challenges of clinical practiceElizabeth Freire2000072View

From the realization that there is a great gap between the theory of client-centered therapy and its practice, the authors aim to investigate the difficulties and the challenges which arise in the client-centered therapists clinical practice. The therapist’s trust in the client’s actualizing tendency, indispensable to the success of the therapeutic process, is not attained only through a theoretical knowledge of client-centered therapy. Indeed, it is necessary that the therapist has herself experienced the process of therapeutic change promoted by this approach. The authors analyze the elements of change that need to be experienced by the therapist of a successful client-centered practice. Stages in the therapist’s development are also considered.

Client-Centered: An Expressive TherapyBarbara Temaner Brodley2002091View

Clients’ Recall and Evaluation of the Counseling ProcessMark J. Miller1997041View

This article discusses, within a person-centered framework, the process of therapy and those events or moments within the process that clients consider helpful or “good.” One instrument which attempts to assess such events is discussed. Implications for counselors are also briefly delineated.

Come, Stay Awhile: Top Ten Sayings of the SageCecil H. Patterson, Leslie A. Anderson2006131, 2View

In the words of the late Pat Patterson himself, “He will be missed, they say, when a well-known figure dies. But the world goes on—even the most important people die. We come, we stay awhile, we go” (Patterson, n.d.). Such a pragmatic and even-handed attitude characterizes the sayings of this respected teacher, author, and therapist. Patterson’s oft-repeated phrases cover topics from religion and spirituality to psychotherapy to human interactions and the meaning of life. He challenged thinking by shining light on obvious but unacknowledged truths that seem to lurk in popular thought, such as: “By definition, half the population is below average in ability or intelligence. Yet we persist in expecting all students to achieve at or above the average” (Patterson, n.d.). No subject seemed to miss his contemplative gaze. The reader may bounce between nodding agreement and disquietude, but rarely would one experience his words with indifference. Perhaps this response from others is what earned the venerable professor his title, “The Sage of Asheville.” So many of his insights are moving and leave lasting impressions, making it difficult to compile a top 10 list from among his pithy quotes, but I hope you enjoy this brief glimpse.

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CommentBruce Cushna2002092View

CommentBruce Cushna20022View

Comments on Fred ZimringJules Seeman1995022View

Commonalities Between Client-Centered Therapy and How God’s Grace Works: Finding a Path to Client-Centered Christian Spiritual CounselingJerome Wilczynski2019241View

There are striking similarities between the way Carl Rogers (1957, 1959, 1961) conceived of the counselor-provided conditions in client-centered therapy leading to client change, and how Christian theological writers such as Edward Schillebeeckx (1968/2005, 1979, 1980, 1987, 1991) and spiritual writers like Anthony DeMello (1990) describe the divine–human relationship and how this leads to change for human beings. Given these similarities, the author posits that Christian spiritual counseling should proceed in the same manner as client-centered therapy. Doing so allows the spiritual counseling relationship to mirror the God–human relationship as it empowers personal and spiritual growth for humanity.

Computer therapeutics: a new challenge for counsellors and psychotherapistsColin Lago1997041View

Conceptual Analysis of Client and Counselor Activity in Client-Centered TherapyJules Seeman1994012View

Introduction note from J.S.:I wrote the paper in 1951 (my first venture into stating my understanding of client-centered therapy) because I had just taken the post of Research Coordinator at the University of Chicago Counseling Center and felt the need to articulate my current view of CCT. I hope that it may be of some interest as an early view of CCT as I understood it.

Congruence and its relation to communication in client-centered therapyBarbara Temaner Brodley1998052View

Conquering Terror by Feeling Terrified: How I Used Person-Centered Psychotherapy to Overcome My Terror of PerformingJosephine Gaeffke2016231, 2View

It took a long time of tireless searching to realize that freeing painful repressed memories would also free me from my fear of the stage. I began therapy in 2003 with Armin Klein and continued with his wife Grace in 2011, after Armin passed away. Armin and Grace Klein aretherapists who embody Carl Rogers’ person-centered values (Rogers,1995). When I combined psychotherapeutic tools with Bach’s “Goldberg Variations,” I found my own strategies to uncovertraumatic memories of my earliest years. How I have remembered what I felt as an unborn child, infant, and child is difficult to explain logically. My stage-fright disappeared when I realized that when I stepped on stage I re-experienced exactly how terrified I felt of being born to my mother. At that very instant I also lost forever my terror of every person I met. Before therapy, I was a person who stumbled frightened and blindly through life. By remembering extremely early trauma, I am now a person who feels within a huge radiant sun that sheds warm brilliant light even on the darkest corners of existence.

Keywords: Stage fright, child abuse, Johann Sebastian Bach’s “Goldberg Variations,” Person Centered Therapy, Spina Bifida.

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Construct validity of the core conditions and factor structure of the client evalulation of counselor scaleJo Cohen Hamilton2000071View

The Client Evaluation of Counselor Scale (CECS) was developed by the author and used to obtain 135 client’s evaluations of their counselor’s in-session altitudes and behaviors, along with client’s reported satisfaction with their counseling experience. Practicum/internship counselors (n : 35) participating in the study represented themselves as preferring a variety of theoretical orientations. For purposes of the present report, clients’ evaluations of the core conditions (as defined by specific CECS items) were appraised with regard lo the variables with which they were most highly correlated. Global profiles of an understanding/empathic, an accepting/unconditionally positively regarding, and a genuine counselor were derived from statistical data on face valid and content valid items as revealed by clients’ reports. These core condition profiles compare well with traditional conceptualizations of the core conditions. Twelve empirically-factored counselor styles/dimensions were identified; most included both theory specific and non-specific variables (survey items); and all correlated significantly with counseling outcome. Results are compared and contrasted with current research on counseling process and outcome, with person-centered concepts in particular addressed. The present research provides support for the views that multifarious therapist approaches are correlated with positive client outcomes; that person-centered characteristics appear to be especially strong correlates of client positive outcome; and that perhaps the most significant component of both counselor embodiment of the core conditions and client positive outcome is the client’s perception of the therapist as a well-adjusted person.

Contemporary Psychoanalysis and Client-Centered Therapy: Different PracticesBarry Grant2010171, 2View

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Corrections to: Carl Rogers in dialogue with Martin Buber: A New AnalysisKenneth N. Cissna1998051View

Corrections. Human science and the person-centered approach: An inquiry into the inner process of significant change within individualsRobert Barth1994013View

The following materials are corrections from the last issue by the publisher.

These corrections consist of the identification and correction of several pages from the Barth & Sanford article,

Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within Individuals. The printing skipped several pages of the final diskette copy and incorrect insertions of those pages may have distracted from the meaning and clarity of the article. Readers will be able to substitute these corrections in the original article.

John K. Wood’s article, The Person-Centered Approach’s Greatest Weakness: Not Using its Strength, is repeated in its entirety. One page was left out and other pages substituted during the printing. This resulted in considerable confusion to some readers.

Several other articles also had their content distracted from when quotes were not indented and several other format problems occurred.

The editors and publisher apologize for these problems. Final galley proofing by authors and closer attention to the technology should eliminate such errors in the future.

Corrections. The person-centered approach’s greatest weakness: not using its strengthJohn Keith Wood1994013View

The following materials are corrections from the last issue by the publisher.

These corrections consist of the identification and correction of several pages from the Barth & Sanford article,

Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within Individuals. The printing skipped several pages of the final diskette copy and incorrect insertions of those pages may have distracted from the meaning and clarity of the article. Readers will be able to substitute these corrections in the original article.

John K. Wood’s article, The Person-Centered Approach’s Greatest Weakness: Not Using its Strength, is repeated in its entirety. One page was left out and other pages substituted during the printing. This resulted in considerable confusion to some readers.

Several other articles also had their content distracted from when quotes were not indented and several other format problems occurred.

The editors and publisher apologize for these problems. Final galley proofing by authors and closer attention to the technology should eliminate such errors in the future.

Coterminous Intermingling of Doing and Being in Person-Centered TherapyJerold Bozarth1992011View

This paper examines the roles of “being” and “doing” in person-centered therapy. The examination consists of (1) reconsideration of the basic principles of the person-centered approach espoused by the late Carl R. Rogers, (2) examination of Rogers’ responses to his clients, and (3) consideration of some of the reported research findings concerning the function of the person-centered therapist.

Counselling: Not always a recognized profession in EuropeFrangoise Ducroux-Biass2002091View

Cover & InformationADPCA2001081, 2View

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Cover to EditorialJo Cohen2020251, 2View

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Cover, Information & DedicationADPCA2002091View

Cover, Information & Public NoticeADPCA2007141, 2View

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Criteria for making empathic responses in client-centered therapyBarbara Temaner Brodley1998051View

The criteria for communicating empathic understanding described in this paper are based on my work as a client-centered therapist. As my therapy evolved, I only gradually identified these criteria and recognized that they express the nondirective attitude that informs my practice. An early version of the paper was prepared for the First International Forum on the Person-Centered Approach in Mexico in 1982. An excerpt was published in the ADPCA newsletter, Renaissance, in 1984. In 1986 Carl Rogers published his article on “reflection of feelings” which gave support to my thesis that the client-centered therapist’s intention in responding empathically is to verify understanding, not to manipulate the client’s process nor to foster any therapist goal for the client. The fundamental nondirectiveness in client-centered work seems to be difficult for some students to understand or, perhaps, to believe. My hope that this paper will help to clarify the meaning of the nondirective attitude in empathic interaction process as well as clarify the criteria for overt empathic responding in client-centered therapy.

Cultural Conditions of TherapyJasvinder Singh, Keith Tudor1997041View

Drawing on the relevant literature and the authors’ own experience and work, this article discusses therapy in the context of culture. Culture is defined and distinguished from race and the implications of cultural variables discussed in relation to the practice of therapy as well as the training of therapists. Rogers’s (1957/1990b, 1959) six conditions of therapeutic personality change are developed from a cultural perspective.

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Cultural Influences vs. Actualizing Tendency: Is the person-centered approach a universal paradigm?Chun-Chuan Wang2003101View

Cultural Influences vs. Actualizing Tendency: Is the person-centered approach a universal paradigm?

Darmok and Jalad on the Ocean: A Pop-Culture Exploration of Empathic UnderstandingBrian E. Levitt2009161, 2View

In this paper, I explore empathic understanding vis-à-vis the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation. I present scenes from an episode of The Next Generation as case studies and analyze them to reveal the external and internal nature of language, as well as the “delusion” of a shared language. I also use these scenes to highlight the difference between understanding and empathic understanding, errors in empathic understanding found in the Wisconsin Project, and the usefulness of pre-therapy in expanding therapist awareness and appreciation of empathic understanding. I also delve into the roles played by psychological contact, congruence, and unconditional positive regard in supporting empathic understanding, as illustrated by the pop-culture vignettes I provide.

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Demonstration of a Person-Centered Supervision: Disclosure of Childhood AbuseJo Cohen Hamilton2007141, 2View

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Dialogical and person-centered approach to psychotherapy: Beyond correspondences and contrasts, toward a fertile interconnectionGrigoris Mouladoudis2001081, 2View

This manuscript compares Dialogical therapy which is based on Buber’s philosophy, with Person-centered approach (PCA) to therapy which is based on Rogers’s theory of therapeutic relationships. From the comparison between them, I suppose that Dialogical psychotherapy and PCA represent two separate branches with differences mainly in their theoretical framework but with similarities in their therapeutic practice. Finally discussed are their relation to postmodern thought and constructivist principles and the possibilities for their complementary implementation.

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Dictionary of Person-Centered PsychologyJo Cohen Hamilton2002092View

Did Carl Rogers’ Positive View of Human Nature Bias His Psychotherapy?Barbara Temaner Brodley, Wendy M. Bradburn2015221, 2View

Carl Rogers’ theory of the actualizing tendency (Goldstein,1939; Rogers, 1959, 1980) involves the view that human nature is inherently constructive and prosocial. Critics (e.g., May, 1982) of client-centered therapy (CCT) have argued that it avoided negative antisocial feelings and impulses, exhibiting a bias toward the positive.Bradburn (1996) conducted a study on Rogers’ therapy to evaluate the charge of positive bias. She utilized 25 transcripts of Rogers’interviews to examine his responses to client expressions of positive, negative, mixed or neutral affective valence. Her aim was to determine (a) whether Rogers favored positive versus negative client expressions in general, as measured by his own affective valence and also measured by its intensity relative to the client’s and (b) whether client anger, reputed to be a troublesome emotion for Rogers, increased positive bias.

Results failed to substantiate any positive bias. (1) Analysis showed a strong positive association between the valence of client statements and the valence of Rogers’ statements (p < .005). (2) Except after positive client statements, Rogers gave fewer positive and more negative responses than expected (p < .005). (3) He diminished all client affective intensity more than he intensified it (p < .005), tending to do so relatively more often for positive than for negative client affect. This finding suggested that CCT responds not only to feelings but rather to the client’s whole meaning, including cognitive and information processing elements (e.g., Zimring, 1990a.b.). (4) Rogers tended to express negative valence or intensifyaffect in response to clients’ anger at a higher rate than for other negative effects. Keywords: Carl R. Rogers, client-centered, person-centered, humanistic psychotherapy, empathic understanding responses, bias in psychotherapy, Rollo May, self-actualization, problem of evil, actualizing tendency, nature of man.

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Dilemmas of being a person-centered supervisorNathaniel J. Raskin2007141, 2View

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Divorce: A party of oneTaylor Noble Edenfield1998052View

Editor’s CommentsFred M. Zimring, Jerold Bozarth1992011View

Editorial comments by Jerold D. Bozarth and Fred M. Zimring.

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EditorialJerold Bozarth1995022View

EditorialJo Cohen1999061View

EditorialBruce Allen, Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2009161, 2View

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EditorialRachel Jordan, Stephen Demanchick2014211, 2View

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EditorialJon Rose2001081, 2View

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EditorialJeanne P. Stubbs1997041View

EditorialJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2007141, 2View

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EditorialJo Cohen Hamilton2010171, 2View

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EditorialKatie Hatch, Robbie Culp2016231, 2View

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EditorialJerold Bozarth1994013View

EditorialJo Cohen Hamilton1999061View

EditorialBruce Allen, Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2008151, 2View

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EditorialLaura Jeanne Maher1998051View

EditorialBarry Grant2004111, 2View

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EditorialJerold Bozarth1996031View

EditorialBruce Allen, Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2011181, 2View

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EditorialJo Cohen Hamilton2000071View

EditorialJerold Bozarth1995021View

EditorialJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2005121, 2View

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EditorialJo Cohen1998052View

EditorialRachel Jordan, Stephen Demanchick2012191, 2View

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EditorialJo Cohen Hamilton2000072View

EditorialJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2006131, 2View

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EditorialJeanne P. Stubbs1997041View

EditorialRachel Jordan, Stephen Demanchick2013201, 2View

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EditorialJon Rose2003101View

Editorial V24 N1Jerome Wilczynski, Marjorie Witty2019241, 2View

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Editorial V24 N2Jerome Wilczynski, Marjorie Witty2019241, 2View

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Editorial; Better late than neverJon Rose2002092View

Editorial; Loss and life in a person-centered communityJon Rose2002091View

EditorialsFred M. Zimring, Jerold Bozarth1994012View

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Editors’ Introductory Commentary2019View

Editors’ Introductory CommentaryJerome Wilczynski, Marjorie Witty2019241View

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Education and the Humanistic CrisisCecil H. Patterson2006131, 2View

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Education as Relationship Between PersonsAlexandros V. Kosmopoulos, Stephanos P. Vassilopoulos2009161, 2View

Relational dynamic education and counseling is a developing approach that views education as (1) a process that targets the emergence and establishment in the individual of a unique identity and (2) an act, not static but dynamic and fluid, greatly influenced by the quality of the relationships. The fruits of this pedagogy depend heavily on the transformation of the educational relationship into a genuine, person- centered one. It has application in every field of human endeavor where the healthy psychological and spiritual growth of the individual is a goal. In this article, the basic concepts and tenets of this approach are presented. A new teaching model is put forward, based on the quality of person-centered relationships between the student and the teacher.

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Effecting a collaboration between Roger’s client-centered therapy and Kohut’s self psychologyDarryl A. Hyers1995021View

Effects of Person-Centered Psychological Assistance on Workers in Stressful JobsJohn M. Malouff, Kristy S. Osland, Wendy K. Alford2005121, 2View

This paper describes a study that evaluated person-centered psychological assistance in reducing the stress ofworkers in stressful jobs. Randomly-assigned experimental group participants received written information on basic person-centered counseling. Participants were asked to implement these methods while talking with an
as signed co-worker for 10 minutes a day for one week about the co-worker’s stresses or emotions relating to the workplace. Participants in the experimental group completed a distress measure before and after the intervention. Post-intervention distress levels of the experimental group significantly decreased compared to the control group which received no intervention. The findings suggest that providingworkers in stressful jobs opportunities to receive person-centered psychological assistance from co-workers informed about basic person-centered counseling may be helpful in reducing distress.

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Emergence of theory and methodology for a human system model of positive health: an interview with Jules SeemanKristin S. Sturdevant1995022View

At the Annual Conference of the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach in 1994, I asked Jules if I might interview him. As a member of a panel earlier in the day in which participants talked about client-centered theory early in its development, Jules spoke of a “lost piece” of his history early in development of client-centered theory. Jules also talked about his theory, a human system model of positive health. Moreover, he described the basic methodology which therapists from this theoretical perspective might enter a client’s “system” by making connection, and facilitating therapeutic growth through communication. My purpose in interviewing Jules is threefold. I would like others to hear Jules tell his story – that is, to tell how his ideas emerged, found a home in Rogerian theory, and continue to unfold. I would like to acknowledge the “lost piece” in Jules’s history. And I hope to provide others with a narrative account of the development of client-centered (now person-centered) theory and how complimentary person-centered theory is to human systems theory, for which Jules has not only a conceptual definition, but a methodology.

Empathetic communication for conflict resolution among childrenJeff L. Cochran2002092View

This article presents an empathy-focused approach to conflict resolution among children that is applicable in schools and other settings. The authors illustrate the approach with a case example and with role definitions for speakers, listeners, and facilitators. The authors assert that complete communication (having children in conflict listen to one another and then empathically respond to one another without judgment or bias) is a highly effective and powerful means to conflict resolution. Important interpersonal and intrapersonal benefits include: increased self-efficacy and self-reliance, increased respect for self and others, increased empathy and emotional maturity, and increased skills in developing meaningful friendships. Further, this model may help prevent school violence resulting from children feeling ostracized and unheard. Additional applications are also discussed.

Empathic understanding and feelings in client-centered therapyBarbara Temaner Brodley1996031View

Empathic Understanding and Feelings in Client-Centered TherapyBarbara Temaner Brodley1992011View

Empathic understanding grows the personFred M. Zimring2000072View

A new framework will be offered to answer questions about: 1) Why psychotherapeutic change occurs and why empathy has the effect it does; and 2) What are the targets of empathic understanding?

EmpathyMeriam Bassuk1995022View

Empathy and the media: Can we really know people from the news?Jon Rose2002092View

Empathy and the media:
Can we really know people from the news?
Jon Rose2002092View

Empathy Experiment Report: A lifelong friend and a child clientLori Meitzler2001081, 2View

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Empathy Experiment Report: A Mother and a FriendKaren Breidinger2001081, 2View

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Empathy Experiment Report: A Sister and a BoyfriendKatherine Martin2001081, 2View

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Empathy toward client perception of therapist intent: Evaluating one’s person-centerednessJo Cohen1994013View

Evaluating one’s own person-centeredness can be facilitated by asking the question, “What is the client’s perception of the therapist’s intent” The present paper asserts that from a person-centered approach, the client’s perceptual stance is the context for relationship development, and a context within which the therapist’s response must be evaluated. Empathy with the client’s phenomenal world of the therapists’ intent can be a guide for evaluating therapeutic person-centeredness. To assure that the therapist manifests a trust in the client’s self-actualization tendency, it is critical to assess the client’s perception that this is so.

Empathy: Is that what I hear you saying?Sharon Myers1999061View

This paper reviews the client-centered approach to empathy with a view toward uncovering relational themes in Rogers’ original conceptualization. Challenging traditional versions of empathy which reduced the concept to a special quality of the therapist or to a precise communication skill, this paper argues that empathy is an interactional variable, not well suited to theoretical definition. A model emerges for understanding empathy as on aspect of the interactional relationship which develops between counselor and client.

Empatia InteruptusJohn Keith Wood1999061View

Errata: Teaching Person-Centered Counseling Using a Co-Counseling ExperienceMaria Hess2010171, 2View

Abstract. Rogerian attributes of congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding are at the core of person-centered counseling. The author presents a training model for undergraduates based on these seminal ideals. Included are how to create an emotionally safe environment for acquiring clinical skills, the importance of developing in-class community, how to facilitate choosing co-counselors, and the impact of supervision and feedback. The use of didactic exercises, required papers and reading, co-counseling triads, discussions, relevant self-disclosure, and high student and instructor engagement promotes an interactive, inclusive, clinically challenging course. Teachers and students report high satisfaction with this classroom experience.

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Examining unconditional positive regard as the primary condition of therapeutic personality changeKen Tyler1999061View

This paper compares Rogers’ early formulation of the theory of personality and behavior (Rogers, 1951), which has become known as “The Nineteen Propositions,” with his main statement of personality theory (Rogers, 1959). The theoretical developments which took place during those few intervening years, particularly in relation to unconditional positive regard, throw some light on, and support, Jerold Bozarth’s reconceplualization of unconditional positive regard as “The primary condition of therapeutic personality change” (Bozarth, 1996, p.44). In this paper I want to describe those changes and demonstrate their importance to the development of person-centered theory.

Extending Rogers’ thoughts on human destructivenessJ. Guthrie Ford1994013View

Carl Rogers explicitly described children’s urges to inflict pain, a male organism directing a sexual assault on young girls, and a mother’s organic need to aggress against her child. In light of these recognitions of human destructiveness by Rogers, Quinn (1993) has recently challenged the commitment of person-centered psychologists to the wholly constructive actualizing tendency. Quinn (1993) has argued for destructiveness being equally “at core” with constructive organismic capacities. He has also asserted that this possibility was acknowledged, although inadvertently so, by Rogers himself, through various descriptions (admissions to?) human destructiveness. If person-centered psychology is equivocal about the inherentness of human destructiveness, then many person-centered deductions and applications become clouded. Quinn (1993) focused on client-centered therapy, arguing that the client’s organismic valuing process, which may well include destructive features, has limited adaptive benefit. Although I do not find that Rogers recognized destructiveness as an inherent directionality, it is true that person-centered theory has not dealt with negative human behaviors in conceptually satisfying ways. This paper is a start toward changing that. Four explicit “cases” of human destructiveness are taken from prominent works and are explained by person-centered constructs and specific processes which Rogers saw as relevant to the actualization of destructiveness. The paper concludes with critical reflection on Quinn’s (1993) developmental-interactional approach to psychotherapy, an alterative to the client-centered approach.

Facilitating an Empathic “Way of Being”: From Experiencing to ConveyingErin M. West, jane A. Cox2014211, 2View

Despite knowledge of empathy’s important role in the counseling relationship, literature regarding nurturing counseling students’ empathic abilities is limited. In particular, literature lacks focus on enhancing one’s ability to convey empathy. In the following we discuss ideas about fostering empathic abilities and the importance of further research on enhancing empathy conveyance.

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Facilitating change in organizations: toward a framework of organization development for person-centered practitionersDavid Coghlan1999061View

Ferdinand Van der Veen: A Life RecalledJ. Wade Hannon, Will Stillwell2009161, 2View

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Fostering client insightDavid Coghlan1999061View

From Gendlin to Rogers to Brodley to Bohart: My Evolution as An Integrative Person-Centered TherapistArthur C. Bohart2020251, 2View

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From Nondirective to NonpredictiveDoug Bower, Lisbeth Sommerbeck2013201, 2View

The concept of being nondirective in person-centered therapy is presented and followed by a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of being nondirective. The purpose for doing so is to examine the principle of being nondirective in order to offer a proposal of the concept of being nonpredictive. The authors assert that the concept of being nonpredictive may be even more fundamental to not being an expert on the client than the concept of being nondirective. Being nonpredictive allows for the different

perspectives of the two authors, particularly with respect to the question of offering, or not offering advice and suggestions to clients. The authors conclude with appreciating, that the idea of being nonpredictive is potentially more inclusive, or flexible than the idea of being nondirective.

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From person to transperson-centredness: a future trend?Richard Bryant-Jefferies1997041View

Full EditionADPCA2010171, 2View

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Full EditionADPCA2004111, 2View

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Full EditionADPCA2011181, 2View

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Full EditionADPCA2005121, 2View

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Full EditionADPCA2019241, 2View

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Full EditionADPCA2009161, 2View

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HarmonyJohn Keith Wood1997041View

Hearts touching each other the interactions of poetries and poetsArmin Klein2000071View

Hello, Neighbor: A Process of Person-centered Mentorship Inspired by Carl and Fred RogersMatthew J. Bolton2020251, 2View

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Honoring the Person Within the Child: Meeting the Needs of Children through Child-Centered Play TherapyCharles E. Myers, Pedro j. Blanco, Ryan Holliman2013201, 2View

Child-centered play therapy (CCPT) is the developmentally responsive application of Carl Rogers’ person-centered theory in helping children by incorporating selected play materials within a safe, therapeutic environment. A look at the differing views on the application of empathic listening in CCPT is explored. Some mental health professionals criticize CCPT as being limited in its application; however, research supports the effectiveness of CCPT in meeting a wide range of presenting concerns in contrast to the personal beliefs of some mental health professionals. The application of CCPT provides children a caring, accepting relationship that frees their inner ability to grow and heal through honoring the person within the child.

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Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within IndividualsRobert Barth, Ruth Sanford1994012View

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Humility as an important attitude in overcoming a rupture in the therapeutic relationshipLadislav Timulák1999061View

This paper depicts the therapist’s share of possible ruptures in the client-counselor relationship. It presents an attitude toward these ruptures which can facilitate the therapeutic and the client’s process. It distinguishes two kinds of rupture: unspoken rupture which can be discovered by the therapist without the client’s explicit pointing at it; and explicit rupture which is expressed by the client. The most important feature of the paper is the presentation of a specific therapist altitude–that of humility–which when held onto by the therapist can facilitate using ruptures for therapeutic goals. The attitude of humility towards ones own imperfections as a therapist, and towards the client’s view of the therapeutic relationship and therapy is developed through description and exemplification.

I’m nobody! Who are you?Veribeth Brinker2002092View

I’M NOBODY! WHO ARE YOU?Veribeth Brinker20022View

Impacts of Affirmative Therapy and Person-Centered Approaches on LGBTQ PopulationsAnastasia Joswick2020251, 2View

With the information provided by the Association for the Development of Person-Centered Counseling Approach conference, in addition to lectures and teachings of psychotherapists researchers using Carl Rogers perspectives; I will identify the overlapping person-centered themes, approaches and application necessary to successfully work with the LBGTQ population. As a member of the LBGTQ community, I will share my own opinion and experiences with this therapeutic approach to exemplify its impact on my view of the therapeutic community’s use of Affirmative Therapy, as well as explain the benefits for future use serving the LBGTQ population.

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Implications on Inclusion of Individuals of Minority Status In Person-Centered Encounter GroupsGurpreet Paul, Kathryne S. Poole, Robert A. Culp, Tim Dean2012191, 2View

This article explores and discusses the experiences of individuals of minority status in person-centered encounter groups. Although encounter groups are inherently person-centered and open to expression ofhuman experience, the authors ofthis paper have witnessed an emotional “shutting down” in some individuals of minority status who attempt to speak of their experiences as individuals of minority status. Although we contend the core conditions are sufficient for these individuals to have a meaningful experience in an encounter group, we believe not all members experience the core conditions and thus the conditions are not always being met; in particular the condition of empathy. We explore why empathy may not be communicated or received by both individuals ofmajority and minority statuses, respectively. We examine and discuss the concept oftopical groups, as well as the potential of implementing person-centered facilitators who could aid in maintaining the core conditions during especially vulnerable exchanges where members in the group are having difficulty experiencing and communicating the core conditions.

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In a well lighted therapy roomMarion Bassuk1997041View

In Memoriam Barbara Temaner Brodley October 4, 1932 – December 14, 2007Marjorie Witty2008151, 2View

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IN MEMORIAM: GARRY PROUTYAmanda R. E. Aller Lowe2010171, 2View

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IN MEMORIAM: GARRY PROUTYLeslie Harris Spencer2010171, 2View

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IN MEMORIAM: LEWIS GOVERJo Cohen Hamilton2010171, 2View

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IN MEMORIAM: NAT RASKINJerold Bozarth2010171, 2View

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Inclusion as a Natural Extension of the Person-Centered Approach: Welcoming All LearnersSarah Walker2010171, 2View

During my attendance at ADPCA, I could not help but reflect on the benefits that the person-centered approach offers special education. In my professional experience as a teacher and therapeutic staff support, I have often found myself wondering the best way to reach children, and how to help them truly learn. Turning to a collection of essays, papers, and talks given by Carl Rogers gave me a great deal of philosophical direction, and creative inspiration. Looking at research on inclusion, especially by those who advocate and assess the effectiveness of a learner-centered approach to education, the efficacy of the approach became clear to me. Coming away from the conference I felt excited to incorporate the person-centered approach into my future work as a therapist. I now feel prepared to incorporate this approach in my current education profession, and into my own personal life. This paper presents reactions to the 24th Annual Association for the Development of the Person Centered Approach (ADPCA) Conference held at Kutztown University in June, 2009. This paper shares my experiences and reflections on how education and inclusion have been influenced by the Person-Centered Approach, as well as how the Person-Centered Approach can continue to enrich and infill special education practices with life and energy. Case Illustrations.

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Index to The Person Centered Journal Volumes 1-15 (1992-2008)Halyssa Greene, Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2008151, 2View

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Individual Declaration of Interdependence: A PoemB. Junahli Hunter2007141, 2View

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Individual experiencing in person-centered community workshops: a cross-cultural studyJeanne P. Stubbs1995022View

This study is a qualitative case study of heuristic methodology whose focus was to investigate the individual experiencing of participants of person-centered community workshops. Data was gathered through open-ended interviews with fifteen participants of these workshops from a cross-cultural sample representing nine countries. The findings supported the construct of the actualizing tendency. Other theoretical findings pertaining to the application of the person-centered approach to community groups suggest differential emphasis of the core conditions of unconditional positive regard, genuineness and empathy, non-specificity of facilitator characteristics, and support of the theoretical premise of non-directiveness. Implications of the findings of the study suggest empathy as a less important condition in the person-centered community group, first experiences in those workshops as having the most impact, and a need for further research in person-centered community workshops as related to “the forming of community.”

Individual Freeing in a Person-Centered WorkshopJeanne P. Stubbs1992011View

This report is a heuristic case study of individual experiencing at a Person-Centered Community Workshop in Pezinok, Czechoslovakia during the week of April 13-20, 1991. The purpose of my study is to recreate the phenomenon of each participant’s ‘symbolic growth experience’ (Frick, 1983) defined as “a conscious perception of the symbolic-metaphorical dimension of immediate experience leading to heightened awareness. The creation of meaning, and personal growth’ (p. 68). The creation of each unique experience emerged from heuristic analysis of interviews of five of the participants in the workshop and immersion of the researcher in the workshop as a participant. The emergent depictions, portraits, and a synthesized integration of the data produced a dynamic flowing between three categories: (1) the individual factors of personal influencing and societal influencing; (2) the group factors of influencing of training and group interacting: and (3) group processing depicted as “struggling,,” “organizing,” and “dividing.” These three categories are interactive with each category flowing into the core category of “freeing.” The findings of this study are reminiscent of a previous finding of a qualitative study by Frick (1983). Emerging from his study was a symbolic growth experience defined as a “freeing power” of experiencing ‘self acceptance,’ ‘self-affirmation,’ ‘congruence’, and ‘increasing trust’. The re-creation the individual experiences of the researcher and the co-researchers resulted in a synthesized creation of the phenomenon of individual ‘freeing’ as experienced in the person-centered community workshop.

Introduction to Charlotte Ellinwood’s “Some observations from work with parents in a child therapy program”Kathryn A. Moon2005121, 2View

Introduction to Charlotte Ellinwood’s “Some observations from work with parents in a child therapy program”

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Introduction To Nathaniel J. Raskin’s “Dilemmas of being a person-centered supervisor”Kathryn A. Moon2007141, 2View

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Japanese poetry and the client-centered approachSachiko Hayashi2000071View

A form of Japanese linked poetry style, renku, is composed by two or more people as a group. In this paper the authors illuminate the therapeutic aspect of the renku-composing process. Renku allows participants to demonstrate their distinctiveness while maintaining the sense of togetherness, or “vacuum” Personality changes take place in the “vacuum. ” The significance of the renku setting and vacuum is discussed from the viewpoint of Taoistic philosophy. A renku group offers us a unique setting in which individuals can free their intuition and engage in dialogue among their whole personalities. Authors then compare a renku group with an intensive group and with Focusing. Renku is a metaphor and circumlocution of our experiencing relationships with other persons and with nature.

Kinship between Self Psychology, Intersubjectivity, Relational Psychoanalysis, and the Client-Centered ApproachEdwin Kahn2010171, 2View

This paper presents for client-centered therapists, unfamiliar with recent developments in psychoanalysis, an overview of three contemporary psychoanalytic approaches: self psychology, intersubjectivity theory, and the relational approach. Despite very important differences, there is some overlap between client-centered therapy and the three psychoanalytic approaches summarized. For example, for both client-centered therapy and self psychology the emphasis is exclusively on the therapist’s empathic understanding, with minimal expression of the therapist’s idiosyncratic subjectivity in the relationship. Although relational psychoanalysts are much more likely to express their idiosyncratic subjectivity in the therapeutic relationship, through self-disclosures, enactments, confrontations, etc., they do so with a respect for the patient’s autonomy and freedom to take or leave what is offered. In contrast to orthodox Freudian psychoanalysis, this attitude of not imposing a therapist’s (or anyone’s) authority has always been a key value of the non-directive client centered approach. Some theoretical ideas of psychoanalysis (e.g. being aware of both the therapist’s and client’s organizing principles/transferences) have interested this author. Another purpose of this paper is a personal description of the author’s development as a psychotherapist. Keywords: relational psychoanalysis, self psychology, intersubjectivity theory, client-centered therapy.

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Learning by Being: A student-centered approach to teaching depth psychologyMaria Hess2012191, 2View

This article addresses a way to facilitate significant experiential learning environments. Humanistic principles elucidated by Carl Rogers, combined with the author’s thirty years of personal classroom experience, serve as a template for creating powerful and rewarding classroom events. The fundamental importance ofthese environments is to inspire and encourage students to use education as a building block to become fully functioning beings.

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Let me tell you what I think – A critical analysis of therapeutic self-disclosuresMarvin Frankel, Mary M. Johnson2015221, 2View

Client-centered therapists prior to 1957 did not offer self- disclosures or their views of the client’s narrative even when requested to do so. The client-centered therapist did not interpret, advise or offer personal opinions or judgments. The self that engaged in ordinary conversation was not present. In this way the therapy bore no resemblance to any other helping relationship. In stark contrast, person-centered therapists are encouraged to offer their reactions to the client when appropriate. Indeed, person-centered therapists view themselves as more authentic “real persons” only if they are willing on occasion to disclose their thoughts and feelings. The self who engages in ordinary conversation is present. Despite these differences person-centered therapists claim that they have not restored the authority of the therapist. Indeed they insist they meet the client more on a person to person basis than the client-centered therapist. Brodley, more than perhaps Rogers himself, deeply appreciated that the autonomy of the client’s narrative could be seriously undermined by any personal disclosures of the therapist. However even she justified the inclusion of the therapist’s expression of feelings in certain contexts. This paper challenges Brodley’s justifications and shows that therapist framed responses do indeed run the risk of undermining the client’s autonomy. The paper further proposes that the distinction between personal and therapeutic self-disclosures is a category mistake. Therefore, client-centered and person-centered therapies are not viewed as two tribes belonging to the same nation but two distinct nations.

Keywords: client-centered therapy, person-centered therapy, category mistake, self-disclosures, empathic reflections, empathic understanding responses.

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Lies: Working Person-Centeredly with Clients Who LieAlan Brice2004111, 2View

Many people relish the chance to try to be free of visiting their dangerous and shameful places. After years of suffering the agonies of their lives, they have had enough. In the context of a counselling relationship, they can have the chance to step outside of the critical and negative judgements with which they are familiar. They can begin to value and appreciate themselves. On occasion, being too keen to move on from their past, they can get into difficulties creating a new life within the context of their current world. I have sometimes seen that clients have wanted to block out a part of their world they have not wanted and hoped that they would then be OK. I was intrigued to find that Marcel Proust (1996) had written: “But the absence of one part from a whole is not only that, it is not simply a partial lack, it is a derangement of all the other parts, a new state which it was impossible to foresee in the old” (p. 368). I often see that it is that derangement, or a new state, that can be troublesome.

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Life enrichment of a profoundly retarded woman: An application of pre-therapyKorey McWilliams1998051View

Maintaining a person-centered approach in a highly technological societyJay T. Willis1995021View

This paper suggests that, contrary to popular opinion, it is possible to have a “high-tech/high-touch” society. Some of the qualities of a highly technological society are discussed. An attempt is then made to demonstrate a number of compatibilities between person-centered values and the values of a highly technological society. It is suggested, we need not fear that the individual will be depersonalized or demeaned in a continually advancing technological society, but that the individual will find greater freedom of expression and individuality in this rapidly advancing technological society – perhaps greater than in any previous historical era.

Measures of perceived group leadership and personal expressiveness: Report on follow-up survey at 1996 Warm Springs ConferenceCurt Morrison, Tim Holloman1996031View

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Memorial and In Memory: Armin KleinArmin Klein, Grace Harlow Klein2012191, 2View

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Memories of Fred ZimringCCTPCA2000072View

Memories of Fred Zimring by The Client-Centered Therapy Person-Centered Approach Network

Multiple Relationships, Hierarchies and Power in Person-Centered Encounter GroupsErik Mann, Heather Mann2015221, 2View

Keywords: Encounter group, unstructured group, Person-Centered group, power, multiple relationships, group dynamics.

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My ChantLucila Hallidie Smith1998052View

My Credo as a Person-Centered PsychotherapistLeif J. Braaten2011181, 2View

My task is to try to sift out the principles of therapeutic work that I am actually using in my daily work with individuals, couples, business leaders, and groups. I am allowing myself this privilege after some 50 years of dedicated person-centered activities as a clinician, academic teacher, and researcher. I have found certain principles that to me seem necessary for a truly positive person-centered outcome. Some examples are: “You Must Love People, Including Yourself,” “Offer the Client a Relationship Between Two Persons,” and “Bring to the Session Your Honest, Genuine Self.”

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Natalie Rogers’ Psychotherapy with Robin: Critique and AnalysesJo Cohen Hamilton2000071View

Master’s candidates in counseling psychology, along with their seminar supervisor discuss, debate, and summarize their reactions to Natalie Rogers’ therapy demonstration video. Responses are candid and cover a broad range of perspectives. The reviewers address various philosophical and practice issues that converge on two central themes: that is person-centered therapy, and what is good therapy. Following the dialogue, reactions to the video and to the critique process are presented

Nathaniel J. Raskin: Encounters in Groups and in His WritingsKathryn A. Moon2011181, 2View

Writings by Nathaniel J. Raskin are annotated with mention of his views on person-centered supervision, education, and his relationship with Carl Rogers. The author reviews his 1974 client-centered therapy demonstration. Experiences of Raskin in person-centered groups are described. The reference list updates an earlier bibliography (Raskin, 1989).

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Natural allies: Twelve-step recovery and the Person-Centered Approach?David P. Westwood2014211, 2View

Core underlying principles and concepts that are shared by the group process in twelve-step recovery meetings and the person-centered approach to therapy are examined. Although developed independently, both twelve-step recovery and person-centered therapy encourage change in adults and promote psychological development. Sharing from direct, personal experience is important in both practices, as is developing an awareness of feelings and needs.

As an example of sharing in a twelve-step meeting, an extended share on the topic of recovering sexual intimacy is included in an appendix. This example is intended to illustrate how sharing personal feelings and experiences with others, in a nonjudgmental and empathic setting, fosters self-acceptance and change.

Although the person-centered approach and twelve-step recovery have distinct features, both benefit from a felt quality of non-judgmental acceptance that is achieved by sharing feelings and personal experiences. Acceptance, which is the common ground in both models, helps individuals grow and differentiate while developing stronger connections with others.

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Near enemies in psychotherapySuzanne Hidore1998052View

The core conditions stated by Carl Rogers as necessary and sufficient for constructive personality change are vulnerable to misuse even by therapists whose original purpose is of studied and pure intent. Kornfield’s elucidation of the Buddhist concept of The Near Enemies is used as a perspective to understand the core conditions. Greater self-awareness of the experience of empathy and unconditional positive regard allows an opportunity for therapists to be personally congruent with the purpose of the core conditions. Attachment, pity and indifference are discussed as traps to intended outcomes in psychotherapy.

Neuropsychological assessment as a means toward greater empathy and communication with brain-damaged clientsJon Rose1998052View

Two case examples demonstrate how formal assessment of cognitive functioning can enhance and clarify empathizing with the emotions and verbal expressions of brain-injured clients. Neuropsychological Assessment, broadly defined to include information gathered from others, behavioral and systematic observation, careful listening to the patient and standardized tests, can explain how brain-injured people think. This can enhance our ability to know and reflect on what it is like to be them (empathy).

Nondirective client-centered therapy with childrenKathryn A. Moon2001081, 2View

This paper describes how the nondirective altitude, client-centered theory and the three attitudinal conditions inform and become evident in this therapist’s psychotherapy work with children. It is asserted that the Rogerian attitudinal conditions are sufficient regardless of whether or not the client articulates and understands his or her feelings. Two of Virginia Axline’s principles for child therapy are described as being somewhat in contrast with nondirective client-centered theory.

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Nondirectivity: Attitude or Practice?Lisbeth Sommerbeck, Marvin Frankel2008151, 2View

The authors reconsider the rationale for the exclusive use of empathic reflections to ensure a nondirective psychotherapeutic relationship. This model of nondirective therapy is contrasted with the view that the nondirective therapist can be defined in terms of a state of mind rather than by way of specific behaviors. The authors argue that in viewing nondirectivity as an attitude it becomes difficult to exclude any kind of therapeutic exchange since all may be said to emanate from a nondirective attitude. The result is that Rogers’ nondirective therapy turns into Person-Centered Anything (Merry, 1990) and can consequently be insidiously directive.

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Nonviolent Communication: Tools and Talking-Points for Practicing the Person-Centered ApproachIan Mayes2010171, 2View

I see the process of Nonviolent Communication (NVC) as being a set of tools to aid one in practicing the Person-Centered Approach (PCA) within interpersonal relationships. The great value of NVC as I see it is that it enables one to take the PCA, which is usually looked at in a very theoretical way, and make it into a very practical thing that anyone can do. I see great potential for Nonviolent Communication being used to assist in the real-life applicability of the Person-Centered Approach in more and more diverse situations.

I will briefly examine here some of the key points of the Person-Centered Approach, with a particular emphasis on Carl Rogers’ 1956 document entitled “The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change”, and relate each to their complementary practices that exist within Nonviolent Communication.

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Notes on Studying Large Group WorkshopsJohn Keith Wood1997041View

Human beings often inflict pain on one another for the flimsiest of reasons, including “trying to do good. ” Under such pretenses, we continue to destroy others and even ourselves. But, we can also care for (even love) one another. We can create beauty, better ourselves and life in general. Were this not so, we would have no thoughts to consider today. These notes pose questions and observations that, at best, might lead to informing our constructive side and lead to improving our understanding of ourselves, our relationships, our groups.

Notes on the relationship between person-centered theory and the emerging field of health psychology: Indications and suggestions for theory, research, and practiceDonald G. Tritt1994013View

Notes on the relationship between person-centered theory and the emerging field of health psychology: Indications and suggestions for theory, research, and practice given at the annual meeting of The Association for Development of the Person-Centered Approach, May 27-31, 1993, Maryville College, Maryville, TN.


Obituary: John M. ShlienHelen Shlien2002091View

Obituary: Ruth SanfordEd Bodfish2002091View

Observations on Healing and Person-Centered TherapyDavid Spahn1992011View

On Becoming a TherapistPeggy Natiello2020251, 2View

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On Gay CouplesNorton Knopf1992011View

On Validity: A CredoJules Seeman1996031View

One person’s response to the survey report from the 1996 person-centered conference at Warm Springs, GeorgiaMary Ruth Reynolds1997041View

Our Freedom to Learn in Practice: A Description and Analysis of the International Language School GroupLeslie Simonfalvi2009161, 2View

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Pas de Deux: A Student’s Journey in a Person-Centered Independent Study ExperienceMarsha A. Smith2005121, 2View

A graduate student reflects on her experience of an independent study of the Person- Centered Approach (PCA). She recounts her initial difficulties with the approach as practiced by one of her professors. She describes a subsequent episode with the professor and considers the episode in terms of her personal growth, the goals of her independent study, and implications for her professional counseling work.

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Pas de Deux: An Assistant Professor’s Journey in a Person-Centered Independent Study ExperienceLeslie A. McCulloch2005121, 2View

The reflections of an assistant professor facilitating a graduate student Person- Centered Approach (PCA) independent study experience are presented. A brief introduction to the assistant professor’s approach to learning and the events leading up to the independent study are discussed. The assistant professor’s journal entries of the person-centered experience, including dates, reflections, related letters, and e-mails are provided.

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Paul Tillich and Carl Rogers Conversation: Review with CommentaryGrigoris Mouladoudis2008151, 2View

The aim of this paper is the review of the content of the conversation—and not of the “dialogue” as I think—held in 1965 between Paul Tillich, the German existential theologian and philosopher, and Carl Rogers, the American psychologist and creator of the person-centered approach1. By using qualitative methodology and presenting their views, I would like to explore six topics all pursued by Rogers with Tillich: (1) the importance of self-affirmation, (2) the nature of man, (3) the basic alienation and estrangement of man, (4) Tillich’s theological language and terminology, (5) the acceptance in interpersonal relations, and (6) what constitutes the optimal person. Finally, I conclude with a commentary regarding their discussion, and I trace the similarities and differences between them.

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PCA’s Greatest Weakness Correction Note Volume 1 Number 2John Keith Wood1994012View

PCJ Volume 25, 2020ADPCA2020251, 2View

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PCJ Volume 26 — 2021–2023 — Full EditionADPCA2021, 2022, 2023261View

Jane–Flotte Editorial
Hauser–A Devil’s Bargain: Meeting Psychiatric Diagnosis in Person-Centred Therapy
Bolton–Decentering Neuronormativity in Humanistic Psychotherapy: Towards
a Neurodiversity-Informed, Person- Centered Approach

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Perennial NetworkJohn Keith Wood2001081, 2View

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Perfecting the therapeutic attitudes: client-centered therapy as a spiritual disciplineBarry Grant1995022View

Person Centered Medical PracticeSusan Bonner Schwarz2000072View

This paper looks at the possibility of applying a person-centered approach to medical care within an HMO. It discusses the difficulties and rewards of such a practice. The author presents a further challenge to all interested in PCA to continue to influence behavior and policy within the managed care model.

Person-Centered and Experiential Therapies Work: A Review of the Research on Counseling, Psychotherapy, and Related PracticesRobert A. Culp2015221, 2View

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Person-Centered and Related Expressive Arts in School-Based Groups with AdolescentsJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White, Justin Welsch, William T. Gann2015221, 2View

The Authors would like to express our gratitude to Natalie Rogers, who died on October 17, 2015. Many students, clients, clinicians, and friends alike mourn her passing and celebrate the contributions that will live on in our hearts. We dedicate this modest review to her and those influenced by her. We encourage readers to see 76173816 for a formal obituary and information to contribute to a scholarship fund to more easily allow people to participate in expressive arts.

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Person-centered attitudes or actions? Charley the star-kist tuna explains it all for you with the help of Konstantin StanislavskiBruce Allen1995022View

Person-Centered Counseling in the SchoolsHelen S. Hamlet2010171, 2View

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Person-Centered counselling in actionDavid R. Buck1996031View

Person-Centered Counselors in Community Prevention and ResearchChristine Abassary, Keri Bolton Oetzel2012191, 2View

The core tenets of a person-centered counseling perspective are similar to the guiding principles of a complementary approach to research. The Community-Based Participatory Research model (CBPR) is outlined to provide counselors with an approach to research that will resonate with a person-centered theoretical framework. In order to improve health outcomes, Minkler and Wallerstein (2008) contended CBPR equitably draws upon the strengths of community members, organizational representatives, and researchers through a collaborative approach. Counselors, working from a community perspective identifying with a person- centered orientation, may find a new avenue to address prevention and research. Specifically, for counselors working in communities where prevention and research are aimed at reducing health disparities, counselors can work within a CBPR framework to form equitable and sustainable partnerships that complement the person- centered counseling perspective.

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Person-Centered HaikuJere Moorman2000071View

Person-Centered Organizations: Cooperation, Competition, or Separation?Andrea Uphoff, Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2008151, 2View

There are many organizations that share the philosophical underpinnings proposed by Carl Rogers, namely the conditions and attitudes conducive for constructive growth and commitment to relationships based on the concept of the actualizing and formative tendencies. Each organization has specific aims and functions that may differ. If one symbolizes the person-centered approach as an organism, the different organizations, functioning at different levels, contribute to the whole. This article aims to describe four English-language organizations and presents a case for individual and institutional memberships that support the advancement of the person-centered approach within political and institutional arenas. It also highlights ways in which readers could choose to support the person-centered “organism,” halting a current climate of decline.

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Person-Centered Practice: A Therapy TranscriptBarbara Temaner Brodley, Fred M. Zimring1992011View

Analysis of a Transcript: Claudia’s Session with Suzanna

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Person-Centered Principles in Graduate EducationChristina R. Mannion, Robert A. Culp2011181, 2View

This paper highlights the major points in Rogers’ 1967 article Graduate Education in Psychology: A Passionate Statement and demonstrates how the article is still relevant to current graduate programs. Rogers’ (1967) implicit assumptions are explored in-depth and his alternative assumptions are presented. As graduate students, we provide specific examples from our own personal experiences to illustrate Rogers’ comments. Student-centered learning, self-determination theory, and Montessori-type programs will be discussed in relation to the implementation of Rogers’ alternative assumptions. This paper presents a personal view of the current state of graduate education, discusses how educational programs could be shifted to be more focused on student-directed learning, and proposes creating training programs that would yield independent, open, and curious psychologists.

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Person-Centered Psychotherapy: One Nation, Many TribesMargaret S. Warner2000071View

Person-Centered Teacher Advocates as Culture BrokersBernie Neville, Tricia Mccann2013201, 2View

This paper explores the application, by teachers, of the person-centered counseling approach, within an ethnically diverse educational population, to investigate how students may feel heard, express their concerns and become empowered in their learning. The central focus of this paper, revolves around the application of the Advocacy model, a school-based, person-centered system, designed to support disengaged adolescent students. The case-study o f an individual student, illustrates how the person-centered approach, may contribute to addressing the complex experiences of adolescent

students, who are attempting to negotiate the space between their traditional culture and the alien and confusing culture of the school. The terms advocacy and culture-broker will be addressed in this paper.

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Person-Centered Therapists Describe the Counselor’s SelfAndrea Reupert2006131, 2View

The therapist’s contribution is crucial to therapeutic progress in person-centered therapy. Although Carl Rogers (1951) established the personhood of the therapist as a central element in client change, there is a paucity of research in how person-centered therapists describe and experience the self they bring to therapy. In the research described here, person-centered therapists were interviewed and asked to describe the self they bring to therapy and how they might use this self in therapeutic work. Therapists described the self that they bring to therapy as a central entity that plays an important role in the therapeutic alliance. Rogers’view that the personhood of the therapist is a key part of the therapeutic endeavour is confirmed in this study. The various ways that therapists might use their self, particularly when building relationships and connecting with clients, is also described in the present study.

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Person-Centered Therapy and Spirituality: The art of knowing and self-determinationJoachim Schwarz1999061View

The authors invite the reader to a closer look at the person-centered approach within the increasing trend toward transpersonal approaches to therapy. The article addresses values in contrast to dogma and emphasizes the client’s freedom to self- determination in the context of spirituality.

Person-Centered Therapy with a Bereaved FatherChun-Chuan Wang2007141, 2View

This article aims to explore the changing process of a bereaved father who lost his daughter out of the 1999 Taiwan Earthquake. Initially, this father, whom I will call John, greeted me formally and politely, though with implicit distrust. However, in a period of 16 months in which I continually paid visits to the family some long conversations also took place, and John gradually’ was willing to trust me. Beyond a recorded in-depth interview with John, I sensed his intense emotions over the loss, and thus invited him for therapy. John finally agreed, and there were seven therapy sessions.
I worked as a person-centered therapist. In counseling, John chose the topic, issue, and speed, and I followed. I kept field notes for the encounter within 24 hours after each session. The descriptions in this paper came out of the field notes. Two themes – a deeper understanding of John and three major changes in John – emerged from the notes. The three changes were autonomy, flexible views, and feat of retirement. They seem unrelated to each other; however, they are all induced from his grief experience. The application of the person-centered therapy appeared to open a new possibility for the field of grief therapy.

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Person-Centered Therapy, Masculinity, and ViolenceDebra Weikert2010171, 2View

When it comes to best practices in therapy, there is no one-size fits all, but the person-centered approach can apply to many. The current paper examines the applications of the person-centered core conditions to working with client issues of masculinity and violence.

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Person-centered therapy: A misunderstood paradigmatic difference?Jerold Bozarth1995022View

This paper focuses on several misunderstandings of the person-centered approach which criticize Rogers’s conceptualization of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change (Fay & Lazarus, 1992; Norcross, 1992) and Rogers’s theory in general (Cain, 1993; Quinn, 1993). Several of their points are examined and their positions of inquiry challenged from the context of Rogers’s theory. The misunderstandings of client-centered theory and practice as interpreted from the framework of other theoretical positions raise an issue of the paradigmatic difference of person-centered therapy from other theories of therapy.

Person-Centered Training and Supervision with Beginning CounselorsJo Cohen Hamilton2007141, 2View

Although Rogers is a significant influence on current counseling and psychotherapy practice, person-centered therapy is in danger of extinction in the United States. One way to help it grow is by providing quality supervision to students who wish to become person-centered counselors and therapists. This paper introduces a five-factor model of PC training and supervision that is true to Rogers’ theory and consistent with current counseling standards.

Factor 1, communicating the core conditions, is grounded in nondirective communication and the self-actualization principle. A direct application of Rogers’ theory of therapy, Factor 1 can be called “counselor-centered supervision.” The remaining four factors communicate trainer/supervisor-centered attitudes.
Factor 2, training in the core conditions, introduces exercises for enhancing core-condition learning.
Factor 3, evaluation, encompasses instruction in self-evaluation, supervisor feedback, and complying with external requirements for evaluation.
Factor 4, supervising theoretical diversity, facilitates congruence in trainees’ self-directed theoretical propensities, and
Factor 5, supervision ethics, asserts PC commitments to the American Counseling Association’s (2005) humanistic ethical guidelines and standards of practice.

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Person-Centered Training: Response to Dave MearsPeggy Natiello1998051View

Personal PowerLauren Hancz2002091View

Personal presence in client-centered therapyBarbara Temaner Brodley2000072View

This paper presents two conceptions of “presence” found in Rogers’ writings about client-centered therapy. The first conception is a naturalistic one emphasizing the openness and immediacy of the therapist in the relationship. The second builds on the first, adding an element of spirituality or mysticism. Expressing my rejection of Rogers’ second conception, I discuss the phenomena of presence and compare Rogers’ spiritual or mystical interpretations to my own naturalistic interpretations of similar experiences. Finally, I describe a small pilot study of presence that shows the concept can be meaningful to clients.

Personal Reflections: Response to Bateson revisited the mind, families and AARichard Bryant-Jefferies2002091View

Philosophical Roots of Person-Centered Therapy in the History of Western ThoughtHarry A. Van Belle2005121, 2View

I argue a two-part thesis: that the Person-Centered Approach to therapy has roots as far back as the Greeks and that the Person-Centered Approach resonates with basic themes found in the history of Western thought. To support this thesis, I survey relevant events in the history of Western thought, focusing on the Modem Period movements of Rationalism and Romanticism that appear to have most influenced the Person-Centered Approach.

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Physical Therapy Student Attitudes and Understanding Related to the Person-Centered ApproachJ. Stephen Guffey, Jody Long, Karen Aul, Susan Mott2020251, 2View

Physical therapists treat many acute and chronic conditions that create personal, social, psychological and economic burdens. When physical therapy students begin engaging with clients during clinical rotations, the development of a compassionate bond between student and client is crucial (Bohart & Rosenbaum, 1995; Cornelius-White, 2006; Bayliss & Strunk, 2015). A strictly biomedical model cannot fully address the complex clinical nature of pain and disability, nor can it fully address the psychological distress that clients suffer (Fuentes, et al., 2014). A strictly biomedical approach tends to place less value on life factors such as family support, motivation, internal locus of control, personality styles, and daily obstacles that might interfere with the processes leading to rehabilitation (Josephson, Woodward-Kron, Delany & Hiller, 2015). Brodley (2019) described the need for a growth-promoting climate. This point is at the heart of the profession’s shift from the Nagi Model of Disablement (biomedical) to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) (a more biopsychosocial model) paradigm.

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PoemsJudith Ingram1999061View

Pre-Therapy: Is it person-centered?: A reply to Jerold BozarthGarry Prouty1999061View

This paper presents Pre-Therapy as an evolution of Client-Centered therapy, while Pre-Symbolic Experiencing is seen as an evolution of Experiential therapy. Rogers considered Pre-Therapy to be of significance for the Client-Centered approach. Pre-Therapy emphasizes empathic contact, and is a theory of psychological contact. Pre-Therapy is not process-directive as is the case with Process-Experiential therapy, but surrenders to and follows the pre-expressive attempts of the client.


Presentation Review: “A Family Approach to Treating Troubled Adolescents”Jo Cohen Hamilton2000072View

Review of Presentation: A Family Approach to Treating Troubled Adolescents; Couples on the Fault Line: Contemporary Couples; by Peggy Papp.

Professionals’ Treatment Plan and Contract Beliefs and PracticesBruce Allen2011181, 2View

Treatment plans with so-called “contracts” are either theoretically irrelevant or antithetical to the Client-Centered approach. However, in the mental health field, they are fairly ubiquitous, especially for Medicaid work. Because of this, I surveyed mental health professionals in one state to see how they used treatment plans with contracts and what they thought of them. I intended to: (a) discover whether these were, indeed, a professionally accepted standard of care (b) compare and contrast Client-Centered respondents with professionals of other orientations. Overall, belief that two of the contract requirements (specifying what goals would be accomplished and how this would be done) were helpful fell between “neutral” and “agree somewhat” on a five-point Likert scale. A third (specifying the time when a goal would be accomplished) fell between “neutral” and “disagree somewhat.” Thus the contract did not appear to be an accepted standard of care. Nor did the plan as a whole: Fifty-one percent of the Medicaid providers said it was related to what they did only “marginally” or “not at all” and 75% said they used it because of legal or clinic regulations. There weren’t enough Client-Centered professionals to allow them to be examined separately, so respondents were combined in two groups, those whose approaches were supposed friendly to the plans and those that were skeptical of them. Statistically, the skeptical and friendly groups differed on how helpful they thought the contract requirements were, although the Friendly group’s means for each of the three requirements still only fell between “Neutral” and Agree Somewhat.” The groups did not differ, however, on how much the plan affected their behavior or why they used it. The results suggest that to make clinical requirements more conducive to Client-Centered practice it would be more helpful to focus on what professionals actually do and what they believe about what they do rather than on theoretical issues.

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Project Estancia JatobaLucila Machado Assumpgdo2001081, 2View

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Promotive Activities in Face-to-Face and Technology-Enhanced Learning EnvironmentsChristine Bauer, Michael Derntl, Reinhard Tausch, Renate Motschnig- Pitrik2006131, 2View

This paper aims to transfer central, influential concepts and ideas from person-centered education into the context of technology-enhanced learning. We systematically review promotive activities and humanistic educational concepts and share our experiences in introducing and actually living these activities and interpersonal attitudes in technology-enhanced environments. Students’ reactions confirm the validity of our approach, which proposes to complement personal resourcefulness with Web- supported activities. Our primary goal is to make learning in today’s knowledge society a growthful experience for learners as well as facilitators.

christine-bauer michael-derntl reinhard-tausch renate-motschnig-pitrik2006131 2
Psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence of women incest survivors participating in a person-centered expressive arts workshopAnne Geronimo2001081, 2View

This study investigated the effect on psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence for women incest survivors, engaged in ongoing group psychotherapy, who participated in an Expressive Arts Workshop. The Expressive Arts Workshop utilized a person-centered approach. This approach invited each participant to explain what her art, music, and movement experience was like without interpretation from others. After a participant finished explaining what seemed important to her, group members were encouraged to focus on internal feelings related to what they had witnessed and were invited to share those internal reflections. The results of this study demonstrate that using person-centered expressive arts increases psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence of adult women incest survivors. Thus, person-centered expressive arts used in conjunction with group psychotherapy can be effective in enhancing psychotherapeutic outcome.

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Psychotherapist Weather LearningAlan E. Stewart, H. Michael Mogil, Matthew J. Bolton2020251, 2View

This paper presents an interdisciplinary, person-centered perspective on the need for, and resources to enable, meteorological learning among humanistic and other psychotherapists.

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Qualities or Dimensions of Experiencing and Their ChangeEugene Gendlin, Fred M. Zimring1994012View

Introductory note from F. Z.: This paper contains the first public discussion of experiencing. It was presented in a “Crazy Ideas” seminar talk by Carl in which Gene and I were graduate students, and then appeared in the Counseling Center Discussion Papers(Vol 1 no. 3) in 1955. What follows is the paper as originally written except for a few spelling corrections, completion of incomplete sentences and the occasional remark added to help the reader understand terms that were current in the 1950s.

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Questioning Psychology: Beyond Theory and Control – Book ReviewMarjorie Witty2020251, 2View

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Questions and Answers: Two Hours with Carl RogersKim C. Francis2009161, 2View

This project involved a transcription of a 2-hour community meeting with Carl Rogers and more than 100 participants at the summer 1975 workshop titled “A Person-Centered Approach: The Process of Individual Growth and its Social Implications.” During this meeting, Rogers candidly answered questions on a wide range of topics including planning for the workshop, the evolution of the person- centered approach and its meaning to him, partners and “satellite” relationships, encounter groups, therapy issues, how he made personal decisions, and his garden.

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Reading Rogers: An editorial assistant’s autobiographical introductionTimothy Tribiano1997041View

Real Human Connection: There is No App for That!David M. Myers, Jessica Miller2019View

This paper focuses on the intersection of technology and the challenges that contemporary students face in managing their anxiety and forming social connections. College counseling centers across the country have seen a marked increase in students struggling with anxiety (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2017). We propose that this trend is intricately linked with technology: the bombardment of information from social media and news outlets can be overwhelming. While other generations certainly share in some of this experience, it is the current generation of college students that are affected most pointedly, having never lived in a world without texting, Instagram, Twitter and Snapchat. Broad suggestions for helping students navigate the unique challenges they face, drawing primarily on tenets of the person-centered theory developed by Carl Rogers are offered. The paradoxical remedy to the modern anxiety may be a return to a simpler, rather than a more complex strategy for intervention.

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Real Human Connection: There is No App for That!David M. Myers, Jessica Miller2019241, 2View

Yhis paper focuses on the intersection of technology and the challenges that contemporary students face in managing their anxiety and forming social connections. College counseling centers across the country have seen a marked increase in students struggling with anxiety (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2017). We propose that this trend is intricately linked with technology: the bombardment of information from social media and news outlets can be overwhelming. While other generations certainly share in some of this experience, it is the current generation of college students that are affected most pointedly, having never lived in a world without texting, Instagram, Twitter and Snapchat. Broad suggestions for helping students navigate the unique challenges they face, drawing primarily on tenets of the person-centered theory developed by Carl Rogers are offered. The paradoxical remedy to the modern anxiety may be a return to a simpler, rather than a more complex strategy for intervention.

david-m-myers jessica-miller2019241 2
Reasons for responses expressing the therapist’s frame of reference in client-centered therapyBarbara Temaner Brodley1999061View

This paper proposes reasons client-centered therapists occasionally may make responses from their own frame of reference. Thirteen reasons are described. The risks involved in therapist-frame responses to the client’s sense of safety, freedom, and perception of the therapeutic attitudes, are discussed and emphasized.

Reflections on Humanistic Psychology and The Person-Centered ApproachCharles Merrill2013201, 2View

The aim of this paper is to show the evolution of myself as a humanistic psychologist and how the influence o f Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May were a central part of my learning process. The core values of each theorist have retained potency over more than thirty years of my professional service. As part of this paper, I will endeavor to give a brief overview of humanistic psychology and the person-centered approach as part of the larger impact on more reductive approaches that were dominant at the time.

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Reflections on Reflecting: How self-awareness promotes personal growthSharon Myers2003101View

his qualitative study affirms the role of self-awareness in promoting personal growth. Experiences of sixteen graduate students enrolled in a counselor education program that intentionally requires self-reflection, introspection, and interaction were explored. Through written narratives, participants reported that engaging in activities designed to enhance self-awareness served to promote their personal and professional development. Being engaged in an on-going process of introspection allowed participants to effectively follow a path somewhat parallel to that of clients in therapy. Themes emerging from their narratives included heightened awareness of self, recognition of personal potential, enhanced empathy for self and others, and improved interpersonal relationships. Emerging from their focused efforts in self-reflection, participants reported an expanded sense of self and a confidence in their capacity to become successful counselors.

Enhanced self-awareness, long the hallmark of psychological health across insight-oriented therapies, offers promising direction for counselor education.

Reflections on the 1966 Dialogue Between Carl Rogers and Michael PolanyiJere Moorman, Will Stillwell2004111, 2View

In dialogue format, the authors revisit the issues of scientific and humanistic approaches to human knowing raised by Carl Rogers and Michael Polanyi in their 1966 dialogue. Moorman posits an unreduced and unexplained view of persons and phenomena. Stillwell offers that the use of language necessarily introduces some reductionism. Both value an acceptance of experience. The dialogue concludes with expressions of trust in the making meaning from the ambiguity of existence using concepts like the “tacit,” the “self,” and “indefinitude.”

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Rejoinder: Response to GaylinRonnie Barracato2002091View

Relating to Rob: A personal account of client-centered work with a non-verbal client diagnosed with schizophernia, mental retardation and brain damage.Charley Knapp2000072View

Remarks at Barbara T. Brodley’s Memorial ServiceBarry Grant2008151, 2View

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Remembering Eleanor: A different way of contactJerold Bozarth1998051View

Respecting the dignity of each learner in teaching culturally-relevant pedagogy — A person-centered learning approachZhu Gang2016231, 2View

This research aims to teach culturally-relevant pedagogy to the preservice teachers by respecting the dignity of each learner. By comparing and contrasting the data collected from (Person-centered Learning Assessment) PCLA I and PCLA II (Freiberg, 2009), the researcher analyzed two lessons centered on culturally-relevant pedagogy. The research finds that person-centered learning approach can effectively transform the students from “tourists” into “citizens” inthe classroom, whereby their dignity and freedom to learn are respected. Additionally, the researcher can work as a resource person by engaging the students in stimulating learning environments. Last, the preservice teachers in the research were encouraged to locate their challenges and opportunities over the course of learning the concept of culturally-relevant pedagogy. Thus, the preservice teachers demonstrated active involvements in the various learning activities.

Keywords: culturally-relevant pedagogy, person-centered learning, resource person, dignity of learner.

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Response to BarracatoNed L. Gaylin2002091View

Response to BarryCecil H. Patterson1995021View

Response to Frankel and SommerbeckArthur C. Bohart2008151, 2View

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Response to Stubbs: If we dance, who leads?Arthur C. Bohart1995021View

Response to Ted Welsch’s Opposing View to Two Rogers and CongruenceLisbeth Sommerbeck, Marvin Frankel2006131, 2View

The authors reassert their position that the Carl Rogers who was infamous and indeed famous for presenting a non-directive therapy then authored a much more conventional directive therapy based on the category error that the “person” of the therapist is someone other than the therapist.

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Response-Centered Therapy: The Good, Bad, and UglyJerold Bozarth2008151, 2View

In the article: “Non-Directivity: An Attitude or a Practice?” behaviorism once again becomes the representation of client-centered therapy in an extension of a paper presented by Frankel in 1988 and further outlined in a more recent article by Frankel and Sommerbeck (2005). The fundamental premise of the authors’ argument is that client-centered therapy consists of “rules of engagement” that are adhered to by the therapist without deviation. These rules of engagement are embedded in therapist response repertoire and referred to as unwavering “empathic reflections.” Any deviation from this response style is considered to be a “prod,” which is defined as “any comment made from an external frame of reference (unempathic) that is made to enable the client to either gain insight or give psychological support” (p. 48). With this bit of behavioral sophistry, the authors become the definers and evaluators as well as the dictators of what constitutes the nondirective approach of client-centered therapy.

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Review of A Person-Centered Approach and the Rogerian Tradition: A HandbookJerold Bozarth2015221, 2View

Book review of A Person-Centered Approach and the Rogerian Tradition: A Handbook

by Adam Quinn

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Review of Carl Rogers: The China Diary Edited by Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-WhiteKathryn A. Moon2014211, 2View

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Review of Child-Centered Play Therapy: A Practical Guide to Developing Therapeutic Relationships with ChildrenJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2011181, 2View

Review of Nancy H. Cochran, William J. Nording, and Jeff L. Cochran’s Child-Centered Play Therapy: A Practical Guide to Developing Therapeutic Relationships with Children.

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Review of Interdisciplinary Handbook of the Person- Centered Approach: Research and Theory and Interdisciplinary Applications of the Person-Centered Approach Edited by Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White Renate Motschnig-Pitrik Michael LuxJerold Bozarth2014211, 2View

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Review of Interdisciplinary Handbook of the Person- Centered Approach: Research and Theory and Interdisciplinary Applications of the Person-Centered Approach Edited by Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White Renate Motschnig-Pitrik Michael LuxJerold Bozarth2015221, 2View

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Review of Living With Voices: 50 Stories of RecoveryLeslie Harris Spencer2013201, 2View

Review of Marius Romme, Sandra Escher, Jacqui Dillon, Dirk Corstens, and Mervyn Morris’ Living With Voices: 50 Stories of Recovery

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Review of On Becoming an Effective Teacher: Person-centered teaching, psychology, philosophy, and dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold LyonBill Miller2014211, 2View

On Becoming an Effective Teacher: Person-centered teaching, psychology, philosophy, and dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon

Reviewed by Bill Miller

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Review of Person-Centered communication: Theory skills and practice by Renata Motschnig and Ladislav NyklKathryn A. Moon2015221, 2View

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Review of Psychotherapy and the Fully Functioning Person By Julius SeemanKathryn A. Moon2012191, 2View

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Review of The Little Book of Neuroscience HaikusDavid Ryback2013201, 2View

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Review of The Relationship Inventory: A Complete Resource and GuideJerold Bozarth2015221, 2View

Book review of The Relationship Inventory: A Complete Resource and Guide

by Godfrey T. Barrett-Lennard

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Review of The Relationship Paradigm: Human Being Beyond Individualism By Godfrey T. Barrett-LennardJerold Bozarth2014211, 2View

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Review of Therapy and the Counter-tradition: The edge of philosophy Edited by Manu Bazzano and Julie WebbKathryn A. Moon2016231, 2View

Book review of Therapy and the Counter-tradition: The edge of philosophy,

Edited by Manu Bazzano and Julie Webb

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Review of Understanding Person-Centered Counselling: A Personal JourneyRoss Balcom2015221, 2View

Book Review of Understanding Person-Centered Counselling: A Personal Journey

by Christine Brown

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Review of Using Technology to Improve Counseling PracticeRachel A. Jordan2005121, 2View

Book review of J. Michael Tyler and Russell Sabella’s Using Technology to Improve Counseling Practice: A Primer for the 21st Century.

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Review of: Otis Doesn’t ScratchValerie Wiley2015221, 2View

Book review Otis Doesn’t Scratch

By Clare Shaw and Tasmin Walker (Illustrator)

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Rogers and Csikszentmihalyi on creativityKristen Bettencourt2014211, 2View

This article examines the similarities and differences between the theories of Carl Rogers and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi regarding creativity and creative transformation. Both theorists emphasize the importance of the relationship between the individual and the environment, Rogers focusing on the therapeutic relationship and the role of creativity in personal transformation and self- actualization, and Csikszentmihalyi examining the role of the community system in supporting novel and transformational ideas. Both see creativity as a quality that can emerge given the right circumstances, and this invites us to consider the role we play as therapists in bringing about the creativity of our clients and community members.

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Rogers’ Late Conceptualization of the Fully Functioning Individual: Correspondences and Contrasts with Buddhist PsychologyJan I. Harman1997041View

In the last decade of his life, Rogers’ conceptualization of the fully functioning individual, first fully described in 1961, was broadened to encompass new discoveries about the nature of human physical potentialities and of the physical universe. Rogers (1980) endeavored to describe the “person of tomorrow” who would live in an era when inner exploration of psychological capacities would commonly include meditative and other means of altering states of consciousness for purposes of enhanced self-understanding and physical well-being. He pointed out some correspondences between his then-nascent conceptions of new dimensions in psychic potential and models from Eastern traditions, and reprinted earlier, explicit references to Buddhist and Taoist principles as resonant with his views. Correspondences and contrasts between person-centered and traditional Buddhist psychological theories and the respective phenomenological realities they describe are explored here in greater detail. Finally, methodo- logical approaches to becoming a more fully functioning individual through person-centered therapeutic and meditative practices are compared.

Sandor Ferenczi, A Proto-Rogerian: A Reply to Fred Redekop and Barry GrantEdwin Kahn2010171, 2View

This is a complete and corrected version of Dr. Kahn’s article.

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Sandor Ferenczi, A Proto-Rogerian: A Reply to Fred Redekop and Barry GrantEdwin Kahn2011181, 2View

This is a complete and corrected version of Dr. Kahn’s article.

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Similarities between Rousseau’s discourse on the origins of inequality among men and concepts in person-centered counsellingKevin A. Curtin1996031View

In his second discourse, Jean Jacques Rousseau claims that human beings were most happy and free in their instinctive natural state and that social institutions are responsible for the corruption of humankind. For counselors and their clients, the goal is to maximize this original human nature through person-centered psychotherapy, that encourages the concepts of self-actualization, autonomy, and empathy.

Some comparisons between Taoism and Person-Centered approachMark J. Miller1996031View

This brief article discusses the author’s perceptions of the meaningful parallels between Taoism and Person-Centered Therapy.

Some Differences in Clients’ Questions and Rogers’ Responses to Questions Between the Mr. Bryan Sessions and Rogers’ Post-Bryan Therapy SessionsBarbara Temaner Brodley, Claudia Kemp2019241, 2View

This paper will present and discuss some of the results from Claudia Kemp’s Doctoral Dissertation research on Carl Rogers’ responses to his clients’ questions. It focuses on the part of Claudia’s study that compares Mr. Bryan’s questions and Rogers’ responses (to those questions) with clients’ questions and Rogers’ responses in a large sample of transcripts made from his later therapy sessions. It reveals some of the ways Rogers was in transition towards becoming a clientcentered therapist when conducting the Bryan sessions, and discusses behavioral differences in the two stages of his development – Bryan and post-Bryan.

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Some Differences in Clients’ Questions and Rogers’ Responses to Questions Between the Mr. Bryan Sessions and Rogers’ Post Bryan Therapy SessionsBarbara Temaner Brodley, Claudia Kemp2019242View

This paper will present and discuss some of the results from Claudia Kemp’s Doctoral Dissertation research on Carl Rogers’ responses to his clients’ questions. It focuses on the part of Claudia’s study that compares Mr. Bryan’s questions and Rogers’ responses (to those questions) with clients’ questions and Rogers’ responses in a large sample of transcripts made from his later therapy sessions. It reveals some of the ways Rogers was in transition towards becoming a client-centered therapist when conducting the Bryan sessions, and discusses behavioral differences in the two stages of his development – Bryan and post-Bryan.

barbara-temaner-brodley claudia-kemp2019242
Some Observations from Work with Parents in a Child Therapy ProgramCharlotte Ellinwood2005121, 2View

This paper represents the first step in an examination of experience with parents of children brought to the Counseling Center and seen by members of the Child Therapy Group. These experiences are considered in relation to client-centered theory and to experiences with other adult clients. Special emphasis is placed upon the establishment of the conditions necessary for therapy and the implications of our experience in this area for work with difficulty (“failure zone”) clients.

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Some Observations of Carl Rogers’ Behavior in Therapy InterviewsBarbara Temaner Brodley1994012View

Carl Rogers’ psychotherapy behavior, recorded on film, video, audiotape and in verbatim transcripts, is a rich source for learning about psychotherapy in general and specifically about the client/person-centered approach that Rogers developed (Rogers, 1957;1959;1980;1986a).My interest in Rogers’ own therapy behavior — how it relates to his theory and development as a therapist — has led me to examine, thus far, 34 sessions, consisting of 1,930 responses Rogers made in reaction to his clients, conducted over a 46 year time span — from 1940 through 1986.

This report is primarily based on a system for rating client/person-centered therapy sessions which I developed with Anne Brody (Brodley & Brody, 1990; Brody, 1991; Brodley & Brody,1993). I shall summarize the findings from the total sample of 1,930 responses, show comparisons between Rogers’ behavior in the frames of three consecutive time spans over the 46 year period of the 34 sessions, and relate the findings to Rogers’ theoretical writings.

Special Section: PoemsThair R. Dieffenbach1998051View

“A Plea for Understanding” by Thair R. Dieffenbach;

“Pretense” by Nicholas Mazza, Ph.D., Florida State University

“Haiku Poems” by Joe Utay, Eastern Kentucky University

Stella’s Stories – Responses to TraumaJill Jones2003101View

This article begins with an introduction to trauma responses and a brief comparison of Client-Centered Therapy (CCT.) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) It then presents three stories written by a former client who had experienced persistent trauma both as a child within her family and as a young adult living under a repressive regime The first two stories describe events from her past and the third offers an example of the lasting effects of her experiences. The article concludes with Stella’s and my reflections on the therapeutic process. Stella chose the pseudonyms to protect confidentiality and has given written permission for her material to be published.

Summary and Evaluation of Carl Rogers’ Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality ChangeElisabeth Eager2010171, 2View

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Supervision: Carl Rogers, Where are You Now?David M. Myers2020251, 2View

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Susan Pildes Interviews LucinaSusan Pildes1997041View

The following interview, transcribed from videotape, is the first meeting of Lucinda, a writer and journalist who lives in Mexico, and Susan Pildes, a client––centered therapist of 22 years. It was recorded in Chicago in October, 1993. The setting was Dr. Marjorie Witty’s Advanced Client- Centered Therapy class at the Illinois School of Professional Psychology. The tape was produced by Carl Aniel and transcribed by Tim Tribiano and Barbara Bogosian.

Talking with the Late “Pat” Patterson: Selections from Two InterviewsCecil H. Patterson, Morris L. Jackson, Sarah Nassar-McMillan2006131, 2View

During his lifetime C. H. Patterson contributed significantly to the growth and enhancement of the person-centered, rehabilitation, and generic counseling, psychology and education movements in the United States and abroad. His work spans several decades. We consider C. H. Patterson to be one of the true disciples of Carl Rogers who made it his mission in life to promote the wonders and effectiveness of the person-centered approach. We were honored and humbled at the opportunity to have interviewed one of the great minds and contributors to theperson-centered counseling movement. This article merges separate interviews of C. H. Patterson conducted in 1999 by Dr. Morris L. Jackson and Dr. Sylvia Nassar- McMillan. For a complete reading of the individual interviews of C. H. Patterson, consult Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 435 879 and Counseling Today, July 1999, Volume 42, No. 1.

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Teaching and TransformationBernie Neville2011181, 2View

Teachers are involved in the personal transformation of their students whether or not they are comfortable with the idea of “changing” their students. In this paper, the image of an onion is utilized in the discussion of a model of multilayered learning, noting that learning does not take place only at the surface layer of skills and behavior, but also at the deeper layers of perspectives, values and basic assumptions, with different kinds of teaching likely to impact at each level.

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Teaching Client-Centered Therapy: A Pilot Analysis of the Empathic Responses of Clinical Psychology Graduate StudentsJerome Wilczynski2004111, 2View

This pilot study analyzed the empathic responses recorded on verbatim transcripts of client-centered therapy sessions submitted by graduate clinical psychology students for classes in client-centered therapy. For two groups of transcripts (initial and final), the researcher compared percentages of empathic responses to non-empathic responses as well as assessed empathic response quality. It was found that students delivered fewer non-empathic responses on final transcripts than on initial transcripts. They demonstrated a consistently high percentage of empathic responses on both groups of transcripts. In general, however, the quality of the delivery of these empathic responses remained relatively low.

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Teaching Person-Centered Counseling Using a Co-Counseling ExperienceMaria Hess2009161, 2View

Rogerian attributes of congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding are at the core of person-centered counseling. The author presents a training model for undergraduates based on these seminal ideals. Included are how to create an emotionally safe environment for acquiring clinical skills, the importance of developing in-class community, how to facilitate choosing co-counselors, and the impact of supervision and feedback. The use of didactic exercises, required papers and reading, co- counseling triads, discussions, relevant self-disclosure, and high student and instructor engagement promotes an interactive, inclusive, clinically challenging course. Teachers and students report high satisfaction with this classroom experience.

[This download is not the original print version of the article but instead the errata version that was published in the Journal in a subsequent issue.]

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Teaching Us a Thing or Two: Kahn on Psychoanalysis and RogersFrederick Redekop2010171, 2View

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The 180 Degree Turn: Finding the Human Side of Mandated CounselingDenise Lampo, Rachel A. Jordan, Renee T. DeVuyst, Steven T. Parshall2014211, 2View

This article discusses how cultural changes in the United States led to an emergence of a number of mandated treatments intended to address the specific concerns of substance abuse, sexual abuse, and domestic violence. A brief history of interventions for each of the respective fields is described and a trend toward more humanistic treatment methods is noted. The similarities between the Person-Centered Approach and current trends in these fields are explained.

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The actualizing tendency concept in client-centered theoryBarbara Temaner Brodley1999061View

The paper discusses the actualizing tendency as a biological concept. It aims to clarify the meaning of constructive in AT theory and resolve the apparent contradiction between human pro-social nature and anti-social behavior from the perspective of AT theory.

The analyzed nondirectiveness of a brief, effective person-centered practiceJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2003101View

A brief person-centered therapy practice is described in terms of the frequency and categorization of nondirective and directive verbal behaviors using 22 clients and 101 taped sessions during a nine-month period. Empathic following responses (91%) followed by nondirective therapist comments (4%) were the most frequently observed behaviors. The therapist spoke about 4 sentences a minute, comprising approximately 28% of the spoken words during therapy sessions. While person-centered nondirectiveness was found to co-exist with therapeutic effectiveness, a pattern was not found between slight differences in nondirectiveness and outcome measures

The burden of lingering empathy: A creative writing experience for counselor debriefingQuinn M. Pearson1998052View

The client-centered ecopsychologistBernie Neville1999061View

Client-centered therapy and ecopsychology start from very different ways of imagining the place of individuals in the world. However, in the tension between these two perspectives there is the potential for enriching both of them.

The Collaborative Relationship in PsychotherapyPeggy Natiello1994012View

There is a considerable difference between the values that underlie the practice of a psychotherapy that is based on collaboration between client and therapist and one that depends on the expertise and authority of the therapist. This paper explores the collaborative therapeutic relationship within client-centered therapy and focuses particularly on the values and principles that inform the practice of collaborative psychotherapy. Examples from a client-centered practice are introduced to illuminate the informing values and principles that are described.

The dance of empathy: empathy, diversity, and technical eclecticismArthur C. Bohart1995021View

An integrative model of psychotherapy is presented in which the therapist can use techniques and “interventions,” but from a fundamentally person-centered stance. It is argued that ultimately all therapy is self-help and that it is clients who heal themselves. However the therapeutic relationship is a particularly useful “self-help space” in which clients can grow. Therapy is therefore fundamentally relational, with technology second. In a relational model of therapy, empathy is important and conceived of as resonance. Appreciation of the client becomes a major modality of relating. Techniques can be offered as ways of appreciating, empathizing with, and relating to clients. Empathy and experiencing are conceived of in fundamentally aesthetic terms.

The Development of Additional Propositions of the Actualising TendencyAmanda McGarry2020251, 2View

This paper discusses the actualising tendency in order to clarify meaning within Rogers’ original presentation of the concept, and outline additional propositions to advance contemporary thinking regarding theory. The paper aims to discuss the research which led to the development of the new propositions and recount the fundamental theoretical underpinnings for each proposition. Possible applications for practice are then discussed alongside opportunities to further this research. The additional propositions are consistent with the guiding principles of person-centred theory and demonstrate the potential for contemporary reinterpretations of Rogers’ original work for person-centred therapists.

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The Difference Directiveness Makes: The Ethics and Consequences of Guidance in PsychotherapyMargaret Witty2004111, 2View

Non-directiveness is an attitude of the client-centered therapist. It is the valuational matrix within which the core conditions of acceptance, empathic understanding, and congruence coalesce. The paper explores how departing from this attitude makes a difference in clients’ experiences of psychotherapy. An excerpt from focusing-oriented therapy suggests effects of directivity that re-inscribe the authority of the therapist and undermine clients’ “power to refuse.” It is argued that non-directive client-centered therapy trusts clients as the proper architect of the therapy process and that process directive and experiential therapies do not.

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The Effect of Person-Centered Theory for Clinicians with Hard Science FavorEmily Myers2020251, 2View

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The effectiveness of a brief, nondirective person-centered practiceJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White2003101View

This study serves as a replication of earlier findings on the effectiveness of client-centered therapy and a refutation of the need for specificity and directiveness in brief, efficacious treatment. lt also provides a quality low cost model for individual therapists to address the single most stressful aspect of their work, the perception of lack of therapeutic success (Farber & Heifetz, 1982). Using four global indexes, results showed consistent improvement across clients in a college counseling center throughout the weeks of brief therapy, with the most dramatic gains seen within the first four weeks of therapy with virtually every client (97%). The average effect size across outcome measures was 0.97. The research found significant correlations between the various measures, adding to its validity.

The Effects of Person-Centered Groups on Teacher StressMichael M. Tursi2012191, 2View

Compared to other parts of the world, research on Person-Centered interventions in the United States has waned in the last 20 years (Kirschenbaum, 2007). Although there is vast evidence regarding the efficacy ofthe Person-Centered approach (Gurman, 1977), there have been few experiments in the last 20 years that test the Person- Centered approach as a complete intervention rather than independent core conditions such as empathy or unconditional positive regard. To address that need, a quasi-experimental study is shared to examine the effects of Person-Centered counseling groups on teachers’ stress levels. Research on stress, teacher stress and Person-Centered counseling groups are presented and analysis of data suggests that Person-Centered counseling groups were effective in lowering teacher stress after only six weeks of treatment. Limitations are presented and arguments are made for Person- Centered group counseling to be utilized in schools to assist with teacher stress.

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The essence of client-centered therapy and the philosophy of the person-centered approach: the validity of the momentJerold Bozarth1999061View

The multifaceted nature of congruence within the therapeutic relationshipGill Wyatt2000071View

The aim of this paper is to highlight the holistic nature of congruence. An overview of previous literature on congruence is offered. The metaphor of a diamond is used to symbolize the complex and multifaceted nature of congruence, where the brilliance of the diamond comes from its entirety as well as the integrity of each facet. Each facet is examined individually. The significance of looking at congruence as a whole is emphasized in relation to accessing, via the actualizing tendency, a greater healing potential and beyond – to something greater – an interconnectedness with the universe.

The Nondirective AttitudeNathaniel J. Raskin2005121, 2View

Nondirective therapists have for some time been aware of the fact that the attitude of the therapist is the important thing to consider in the evaluation of counselor participation in the therapeutic process. The “recognition of feeling’ response, first described in Rogers’ (1942) Counseling and Psychotherapy, is the primary technique of the nondirective counselor, and for many people, has become the symbol of nondirective therapy. Too often, however, the appreciation of this school of therapy has been dulled, and its philosophy distorted, by an uncritical evaluation of the “recognition of feeling” technique on a purely intellectual level, in strict separation from the counselor’s attitude toward the client, which is the only thing that can give meaning to the technique.

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The nondirective attitude in client centered therapyBarbara Temaner Brodley1997041View

Revision of a paper presented at the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach (ADPCA), Kendall College, Evanston, Illinois, May, 1994.

The nondirective attitude: An interview with Nathaniel J. RaskinRay Adomaitis2005121, 2View

I interviewed Nat Raskin via email in the fall of 2005. I have known Nat since I was a student of his at Northwestern in the 1980s, and I was pleased and honored to have the opportunity to probe his memory and thoughts about his classic unpublished article, the circumstances in which he wrote it, and his life and developments in person-centered therapy since then. The interviews were edited for publication.

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The nondirective attitude: An interview with Nathaniel J. RaskinRay Adomaitis2005121, 2View

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The original conditions: A client’s perspective of therapyEllen Mriga2001081, 2View

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The Person Behind the PsychodiagnosisAngela Boy1992011View

Psychodiagnosis procedures have become more routinized in the practice of psychotherapy. This article looks at the person who performs a psychodiagnosis and identifies areas which have the potential to contaminate the psychodiagnostician’s objectivity..The areas identified are psychodiagnostician’s values, theoretical orientation, ability to judge, cultural influences, unconscious lures, and ethical considerations.

The person in the psychotherapistArmin Klein1995021View

The person-centered approach: toward an understanding of its implicationsJohn Keith Wood1995022View

The person-centered approach is not a psychology, a psychotherapy, a philosophy, a school, a movement nor many other things frequently imagined. It is merely what its name suggests, an approach. It is a psychological posture, a way of being, from which one may confront various aspects of human behavior. The best known activity it has been applied to is client-centered therapy, which is a psychotherapy, has a theory, a method and has accumulated a substantial body of research generally supporting its theoretical assertions. This article considers the same sixty years of applications of the person-centered approach to phenomena which include – as well as psychotherapy – education, encounter groups, and large groups intended to improve transnational understanding, to explore intergroup conflicts, to learn the nature of culture and its process of formation.

Observations over the last thirty years have revealed shortcomings in the psychology of client-centered therapy, as a suitable theory for applications of the person-centered approach. A direction is indicated for the formulation of an appropriate psychology for all of the application – including client-centered therapy itself. Reflection on this discussion might also inform the practice of psychotherapy as well as suggesting “interdisciplinary” projects that would be naturally unified by the paradigm proposed.

The Philosophy and Practice of Client-Centered Therapy with Older Persons: An Interview with C. H. PattersonDarryl A. Hyers, Jane E. Myers1994012View

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The Potential of Person-Centered Therapy for Active Duty Service MembersBeth-Ann Vealey, Joseph Walsh2013201, 2View

The purposes of clinical social work services for active duty military personnel, are to promote individual and unit psychological readiness, provide support during duty assignment transitions, and intervene during periods of extreme stress. Evidence-based practices, are most valued, because the military invests time and money to credential and train social workers, to provide services that are likely to support the military mission. However, many service members do not readily seek help for their problems, and current practices based specifically on mission readiness may not effectively address many of the psychological stresses faced by men and the growing numbers of women serving on active duty. This paper argues, that person-centered therapy, may serve an important function in goal-focused military settings, because of its non-judgmental nature and valuing of the perspective of the client.

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The primary prevention of psychosocial disorders: A person/client-centered perspectiveSuzanne Hidore1997041View

Psychotherapy is the treatment for psychological disorders deriving from disturbed interpersonal relationships. The essence of psychotherapy is love, or agape. It is argued that it follows that love is the primary prevention of psychosocial disorders. Unconditional love in infancy and early childhood is necessary for the normal psychosocial development of all human beings. Steps to be taken for proactive intervention are included. Published literature is cited to support the thesis and conclusions.

The public expression of private experience: A relativity unexplored dimension of person-centered psychologyJ. Guthrie Ford1994013View

organism. There is yet another pair that is relatively unexplored. One element of this pair is the private (covert) process; the other is the public (oven) process. Rogers has described the incongruence of these processes and the psychological consequences of this incongruence, My students and I have developed a way to measure public/private incongruence, documented the association between incongruence and maladjustment, and integrated public/private incongruence into person-centered theory. Should you read any further? Well, if you have ever said, “Let others know the real you,” you may feel congruent and wise after reading this article.

The Rogers-Laing ConnectionEduardo Banderia1999061View

The self, the family and psychotherapyNed L. Gaylin1996031View

The six necessary and sufficient conditions applied to working with lesbian, gay and bisexual clientsDominic Davies1998052View

The six necessary and sufficient conditions (Rogers, 1957) are offered as a conceptual framework for therapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. “Cay affirmative therapy” represents a special range of psychological knowledge which challenges the traditional view, that homosexual desire and fixed homosexual orientations are pathological.

The use of poems of the psychotherapist in psychotherapyArmin Klein1996031View

The wisconsin watershed – or, the universality of CCT; In Memory of John ShlienLisbeth Sommerbeck2002092View

This paper argues that the major reasons for the ambiguous and disappointing results of the Wisconsin Project were the failure of the researchers to take client motivation into account and failure of the therapists of the project to respond on a level of concreteness that matched the client’s level of expression. The paper asserts that correcting for these two factors leads to the major hypothesis of the Wisconsin Project being, after all, true: Client-centered therapy does effect therapeutic change in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. This result strengthens the hypothesis that client-centered therapy is a universal therapy.

John Shlien contributed in many ways to the author’s critique of the Wisconsin Project. The paper is also the history of his contribution.

Therapeutic Change Factors in Alcoholics AnonymousFelishatee Rodriguez, Joanne Cohen, Scott Tracy2020251, 2View

The current study examines 52 counseling students’ personal reactions to and observations of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Data are coded from narrative reports written by students in a family addictions class from 2012 to 2016. Over 40% of students reported holding a stigma about alcoholism. About half felt anxious regarding attending a meeting, not wanting to intrude. However, the vast majority, 90%, felt welcomed by AA group members, who altruistically imparted information to them (67%; n = 35). Students very commonly reported evidence of Belongingness and Cohesion in AA. Although the students’ observations show that genuineness and empathy do not play a significant role in AA, positive regard was common. Nevertheless, high correlations between positive regard and statements of powerlessness and higher power suggest that positive regard in AA is conditional, and aligned with Step 1 (admitted we were powerless) and Step 2 (came to find a Higher Power could restore us). The current study supports referrals to AA for individuals who desire to stop drinking, are ready to take action, and are comfortable with the religious and spiritual aspects. This study supports the idea that although AA is not a substitute for counseling, it offers unparalleled socialization and support for a recovery identity.

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Thoughts about The Life of Things: Therapy and the soul of the worldDavid Ryback2013201, 2View

Guest Essay by David Ryback on Thoughts about Bernie Neville’s book The Life of Things: Therapy and the Soul of the World

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To my therapistMiriam Bassuk1994013View

To what extent do clients discriminate among the group leader’s basic therapeutic attitudes? A person-centered contribution.Leif J. Braaten1999061View

Ever since Rogers (1957) launched his elegant and provocative model of therapeutic personality change, the main focus of researchers and clinicians has been on the therapist-offered conditions of accurate empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness. Too little attention has been paid to how clients can perceive and discriminate between these conditions. In this study 1,119 client evaluations were collected from 136 participants in 16 therapy groups of 15 three hour sessions, using a self-constructed group climate questionnaire with 15 items carefully tapping the classical person-centered conditions. A varimax factor analysis revealed a rather conclusive three factors solution. The first factor, accounting for 60.0 % of the variance, was called empathic positive regard, a condition obviously integrating accurate empathy and unconditional positive regard. The second factor, accounting for 12.4 % of the variance, was labeled genuineness. And finally, the third factor, accounting for 5.8 % of the variance, was named anxiety/vulnerability.

Towards “AFR-I-CAN” Education: Facilitating Educational ChangeBrigitte Smit1998051View

Towards Integrating Person-Centered and Gestalt TherapiesEleanor O`Leary1997041View

Transcript of therapy session by Douglas BowerDoug Bower1994013View

It is our intention to include a demonstration transcript each issue. The transcript for this
issue is provided by Doug Bower who has available several sessions of dffirent therapists and
clients. Doug explains this in his introduction. The client and therapist gave permission to
publish the transcript anonymously. They offer brief comments on the session. JDB

The research project from which this transcript was taken was part of the requirements for a
degree in pastoral counseling. I wanted to know what client-centered therapy looked like ard to
develop a sense of what it meant to do therapy.

The purpose of the study was to accomplish the following subjective goals for myself: I ) To
better understand the person-centered theory of Carl Rogers; 2) To be able to articulate my
understanding of the theory; 3) To begin to develop expertise in the utilization of the person-centered
approach; and 4) To be able to draw implications from the person- centered theory for the
ministry of pastoral counseling.

Those therapists who were asked to participate had associated with Rogers, regarded themselves
as being person- centered practitioners, and were recognized by others as advocates of the
person-centered approach.

We asked: 1) for a tape of a session which the therapist viewed as typical of his or her work;
2) for the therapist to complete a brief questionnaire; 3) that the client also fill out a brief
questionnaire; and 4) that the client complete an abridged form of the Barrett Lennard Relationship

Six tapes were received with the accompanying materials. That material was written up and
the verbatim therapy transcript in this paper came from that study.

TrustSigne M. Kastberg2012191, 2View

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Two Rogers and Congruence: An Opposing ViewTed R. Welsch2006131, 2View

This article offers counterpoints to “Two Rogers and Congruence: The Emergence of Therapist-Centered Therapy and the Demise of Client- Centered Therapy” (Frankel and Sommerbeck, 2005) contained in the book Embracing Non-directivity: Reassessing Person-Centered Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (Levitt, 2005). I argue that Rogers’ early work included the idea of genuineness along with an empathic acceptant attitude. I submit that the concept of congruence was created before the Wisconsin Project as a core condition of client-centered therapy based on sound research and experience and was not added because of failures. Rogers and his co-workers did not make a category error. Finally, I assert that the nondirective attitude remains valid embedded in client-centered therapy.

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Two Therapists and a ClientFred M. Zimring, June Ellis1994012View

This article contains the typescripts of short interviews by two therapists with the same client. Because eight years intervened between the interviews, these typescripts permit a glimpse of the changes in the client over the period, as well as allowing for the comparison of the style and effect of two client-centered therapists.

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Unconditional Compassion: A struggle to apply the lessonBarbara June Hunter2002092View


Unconditional Positive Regard and Limits: A Case Study in Child-Centered Play Therapy and Therapist DevelopmentJeff L. Cochran, Lindy C. Sherer, Nancy H. Cochran2012191, 2View

In this case study the therapist struggles to maintain unconditional positive regard (UPR) for a child whose behavior in child-centered play therapy creates a need for limits. CCPT was provided within a program to prevent juvenile delinquency among at-risk children at an urban, high poverty elementary school. The client was referred for highly disruptive oppositional behavior persisting months into his kindergarten year. Data evidencing progress is provided as a reference point, while analysis focuses on conceptualization of process and mechanisms of change. The client’s experience ofUPR, as well as use of limit testing to explore possibilities in relationships and self-concept, is related to his apparent progress, as is his therapist’s growth and development toward providing consistent UPR, even when behavioral limits are needed.

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Uses and Limitations of the Non-Directivity Paradigm for Therapy with Families in CrisisFrederick Redekop2010171, 2View

The non-directivity paradigm is briefly examined in light of family systems theory. Purist and non-purist positions on non-directivity parallel the family systems perspective and the feminist critique of family systems. The complementarity of these polarities are asserted to be essential to counseling.

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Very Young, Middle, Older; The growth of not knowingArmin Klein1998052View

Video Review: Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered ApproachLeslie A. McCulloch2004111, 2View

Howard Kirschenbaum is a familiar name to the Person-Centered community. Among his numerous publications are The Carl Rogers Reader (Kirschenbaum & Henderson, 1989) and the biography, On Becoming Carl Rogers (Kirschenbaum, 1979). The biography is a person-centered classic, an outstanding resource so frequently quoted that it is difficult to read anything about Carl Rogers without noting it in the references…

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Video Tape Practice in EmpathyStephanie Hontz2001081, 2View

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Vygotsky and Rogers on Education: An Exploration of Two Fundamental QuestionsJeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White, Joan E. Test2009161, 2View

This article attempts to introduce the main ideas of Vygotsky’s and Rogers’ theories of education using two fundamental questions to guide the discussion: the purpose of education and how one can facilitate learning. Rogers believed that education should foster self- actualization and democracy. Learning can be facilitated through environments characterized by reciprocal empathy, unconditionality, and authenticity that are flexible to the varied demands of many different learners and the broader educational system. Vygotsky believed that education fostered individuals’ development of higher level thinking in a socio-cultural context, where individuals learn their culture’s ways of thinking and doing. Learning is facilitated primarily through social interaction with more competent adults or peers, who scaffold the learner’s experiences. The reader is invited to consider some areas of potential overlap and difference between Rogers’ and Vygotsky’s theories of education.

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We-Rhythm TherapyDavid J. Alpert1995021View

The author presents a new model of psychotherapy which is in the person-centered tradition, but which is especially distinctive in its affirmation of the We-Experience (genuine mutual connectedness between the client and the psychotherapist) as the most theoretically potent component of the psychotherapeutic relationship. The author posits that a high level of psychotherapist integration can enable the psychotherapist to have sufficient sensitivity to the more and less subtle sources of information in the psychotherapeutic relationship. Then through the psychotherapist’s actions based on this sensitivity, the client may preponderantly experience this psychotherapeutic relationship as flowing, as an on-going We-Experience, rather than as being disjointed. This new psychotherapeutic model has been named “We-Rhythm Therapy.”

What Did Carl Rogers Say on the Topic of Therapist Self-Disclosure? A Comprehensive Review of His Recorded Clinical WorkDavid M. Myers2020251, 2View

Self-disclosure is the very substance of psychotherapy. Therapist self-disclosure, on the other hand, has long been an area of contention and debate among practitioners, theorists, and researchers. Though staunch edicts against therapist self-disclosure are increasingly rare these days, the various theoretical orientations still weigh heavily on how disclosures by therapists fit into the clinical rationale. It is somewhat widely held that humanistic theorists, including Carl Rogers, were proponents of therapist self-disclosure in the interest of being genuine and open. This study covers all of the known recorded work of Rogers, and takes a qualitative look at instances in which Rogers made self-revealing statements to clients. Results indicated that Rogers almost never made self-disclosing statements to the clients with whom he worked, far less than would be expected based on the broader literature on the frequency of therapist self-disclosure. The implications for the theory and practice of person-centered therapy as well as humanistic/person-centered therapy are discussed.

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What Did Carl Rogers Say on the Topic of Therapist Self-Disclosure? A Comprehensive Review of His Recorded Clinical WorkDavid M. Myers2020251, 2View

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What’s so universal about empathy, congruence and positive regard? A reply to PattersonBarry Grant1995021View

Who’s who of client-centered therapy?Darryl A. Hyers1995021View

You Know it When You Feel it: The Aesthetic Qualities of Empathic ExpressionYasna C. Provine2013201, 2View

The author presents a framework designed to assist the counselor in evaluatingtheaestheticqualitiesofempathicexpression. This framework is advanced by the supposition that empathic expression bears aesthetic qualities that are relatable, recognizable, and interpretive. Theaestheticqualitiesofunityandvariety,movement and stability, scale and proportion, and balance function as the design principles through which empathy can be expressed and experienced within the counseling dyad. This process o f humanistic counseling includes the conceptualization of empathy as an art entity and empathic expression as the preliminary techniques to initiate its aesthetic design. Empathy becomes vivified when the counselor and client together engage in its construction through a relational

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