This paper argues that the major reasons for the ambiguous and disappointing results of the Wisconsin Project were the failure of the researchers to take client motivation into account and failure of the therapists of the project to respond on a level of concreteness that matched the client's level of expression. The paper asserts that correcting for these two factors leads to the major hypothesis of the Wisconsin Project being, after all, true: Client-centered therapy does effect therapeutic change in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. This result strengthens the hypothesis that client-centered therapy is a universal therapy.
John Shlien contributed in many ways to the author's critique of the Wisconsin Project. The paper is also the history of his contribution.