ADPCA Journal

The Person-Centered Journal

The Person-Centered Journal (PCJ) is the oldest continuously running person-centered peer reviewed publication in English. It is sponsored by the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach (ADPCA) to promote and disseminate scholarly thinking about person-centered principles, practices, and philosophy.

The Journal is co-edited by Robert Culp and Kathryn Hatch, who may be contacted at pcj@adpca.org, and the section of book reviews is edited by Ross Balcom, who may be contacted at pcjbookreview@adpca.org. Authors interested in submitting manuscripts are welcome to click on Instructions for Authors.

A limited number of advertisements may be made in the Journal at affordable rates. For further information, you may also contact Robert Culp at the above address. Please specify whether your business is non-profit.

PCJ is published as a double issue per year. Membership inquiries may be sent to Jessica Shipman, ADPCA Membership Coordinator, at membership@adpca.org. All materials contained in the Journal are the property of the ADPCA. If you are interested in reproducing articles, please send your requests to Robert Culp.

We welcome enquiries and hope The Person-Centered Journal engages you!

PCJ Archive

The PCJ Archive is an open-access resource that ADPCA is proud to offer to students, academics and practitioners worldwide.

The Archive comprises free downloadable copies of past volumes of the Person-Centered Journal. The two latest issues are available in paper format only. If you are not an ADPCA member and are interested in purchasing a copy, you are welcome to contact Robert Culp at pcj@adpca.org.

*The downloadable content requires Adobe Acrobat Reader.

2014, Vol 21, No 1-2
2013, Vol 20, No 1-2
  1. From Nondirective to Nonpredictive

    Author: 

    Bower, Doug and Sommerbeck, Lisbeth

    Abstract: 

    The concept o f being nondirective in person-centered therapy is presented and followed by a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages ofbeing nondirective. The purpose for doing so is to examine the principle of being nondirective in order to offer a proposal of the concept of being nonpredictive. The authors assert that the concept ofbeing nonpredictive may be even more fundamental to not being an expert on the client than the concept of being nondirective. Being nonpredictive allows for the different

    perspectives of the two authors, particularly with respect to the question of offering, or not offering advice and suggestions to clients. The authors conclude with appreciating, that the idea of being nonpredictive is potentially more inclusive, or flexible than the idea of being nondirective. 

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  2. Person-Centered Teacher Advocates as Culture Brokers

    Author: 

    McCann, Tricia and Neville, Bernie

    Abstract: 

    This paper explores the application, by teachers, of the person- centered counseling approach, within an ethnically diverse educational population, to investigate how students may feel heard, express their concerns and become empowered in their learning. The central focus of this paper, revolves around the application of the Advocacy model, a school-based, person-centered system, designed to support disengaged adolescent students. The case-study o f an individual student, illustrates how the person-centered approach, may contribute to addressing the complex experiences ofadolescent

    students, who are attempting to negotiate the space between their traditional culture and the alien and confusing culture ofthe school. The terms advocacy and culture-broker will be addressed in this paper. 

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  3. You Know it When You Feel it: The Aesthetic Qualities of Empathic Expression

    Author: 

    Provine, Yasna C.

    Abstract: 

    The author presents a framework designed to assist the counselor in evaluatingtheaestheticqualitiesofempathicexpression. This framework is advanced by the supposition that empathic expression bears aesthetic qualities that are relatable, recognizable, and interpretive. Theaestheticqualitiesofunityandvariety,movement and stability, scale and proportion, and balance function as the design principles through which empathy can be expressed and experienced within the counseling dyad. This process o f humanistic counseling includes the conceptualization of empathy as an art entity and empathic expression as the preliminary techniques to initiate its aestheticdesign. Empathybecomesvivifiedwhenthecounselor and client together engage in its construction through a relational dialectic. 

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  4. The Potential of Person-Centered Therapy for Active Duty Service Members

    Author: 

    Vealey, Beth-Ann and Walsh, Joseph

    Abstract: 

    The purposes of clinical social work services for active duty military personnel, are to promote individual and unit psychological readiness, provide support during duty assignment transitions, and intervene during periods of extreme stress. Evidence-based practices, are most valued, because the military invests time and money to credential and train social workers, to provide services that are likely to support the military mission. However, many service members do not readily seek help for their problems, and current practices based specifically on mission readiness may not effectively address many of the psychological stresses faced by men and the growing numbers ofwomen serving on active duty. This paper argues, that person- centered therapy, may serve an important function in goal-focused military settings, because of its non-judgmental nature and valuing of the perspective of the client.

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  5. Reflections on Humanistic Psychology and The Person-Centered Approach

    Author: 

    Merrill, Charles

    Abstract: 

    The aim of this paper is to show the evolution of myself as a humanistic psychologist and how the influence o f Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May were a central part of my learning process. Thecorevaluesofeachtheoristhaveretainedpotencyover morethanthirtyyearsofmyprofessionalservice. Aspartofthis paper, I will endeavor to give a brief overview of humanistic psychology and the person-centered approach as part of the larger impact on more reductive approaches that were dominant at the time. 

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  6. Honoring the Person Within the Child: Meeting the Needs of Children through Child-Centered Play Therapy

    Author: 

    Holliman, Ryan, Myers, Charles E. and Blanco, Pedro J.

    Abstract: 

    Child-centered play therapy (CCPT) is the developmentally responsive application of Carl Rogers' person-centered theory in helping children by incorporating selected play materials within a safe, therapeutic environment. A look at the differing views on the application of empathic listening in CCPT is explored. Some mental health professionals criticize CCPT as being limited in its application; however, research supports the effectiveness of CCPT in meeting a wide range of presenting concerns in contrast to the personal beliefs of some mental health professionals. The application of CCPT provides children a caring, accepting relationship that frees their inner ability to grow and heal through honoring the person within the child. 

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2012, Vol 19, No 1-2
  1. Unconditional Positive Regard and Limits: A Case Study in Child-Centered Play Therapy and Therapist Development

    Author: 

    Cochran, Jeff L., Cochran, Nancy H. and Sherer, Lindy C.

    Abstract: 

    In this case study the therapist struggles to maintain unconditional positive regard (UPR) for a child whose behavior in child-centered play therapy creates a need for limits. CCPT was provided within a program to prevent juvenile delinquency among at-risk children at an urban, high poverty elementary school. The client was referred for highly disruptive oppositional behavior persisting months into his kindergarten year. Data evidencing progress is provided as a reference point, while analysis focuses on conceptualization of process and mechanisms of change. The client's experience ofUPR, as well as use of limit testing to explore possibilities in relationships and self-concept, is related to his apparent progress, as is his therapist's growth and development toward providing consistent UPR, even when behavioral limits are needed. 

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  2. Implications on Inclusion of Individuals of Minority Status In Person-Centered Encounter Groups

    Author: 

    Poole, Kathryn S., Culp, Robert A., Paul, Gurpreet, and Dean, Tim

    Abstract: 

    This article explores and discusses the experiences of individuals of minority status in person-centered encounter groups. Although encounter groups are inherently person-centered and open to expression ofhuman experience, the authors ofthis paper have witnessed an emotional "shutting down" in some individuals of minority status who attempt to speak of their experiences as individuals of minority status. Although we contend the core conditions are sufficient for these individuals to have a meaningful experience in an encounter group, we believe not all members experience the core conditions and thus the conditions are not always being met; in particular the condition of empathy. We explore why empathy may not be communicated or received by both individuals ofmajority and minority statuses, respectively. We examine and discuss the concept oftopical groups, as well as the potential of implementing person-centered facilitators who could aid in maintaining the core conditions during especially vulnerable exchanges where members in the group are having difficulty experiencing and communicating the core conditions. 

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  3. Learning by Being: A student-centered approach to teaching depth psychology

    Author: 

    Hess, Maria

    Abstract: 

    This article addresses a way to facilitate significant experiential learning environments. Humanistic principles elucidated by Carl Rogers, combined with the author's thirty years of personal classroom experience, serve as a template for creating powerful and rewarding classroom events. The fundamental importance ofthese environments is to inspire and encourage students to use education as a building block to become fully functioning beings. 

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  4. The Effects of Person-Centered Groups on Teacher Stress

    Author: 

    Tursi, Michael M.

    Abstract: 

    Compared to other parts of the world, research on Person-Centered interventions in the United States has waned in the last 20 years (Kirschenbaum, 2007). Although there is vast evidence regarding the efficacy ofthe Person-Centered approach (Gurman, 1977), there have been few experiments in the last 20 years that test the Person- Centered approach as a complete intervention rather than independent core conditions such as empathy or unconditional positive regard. To address that need, a quasi-experimental study is shared to examine the effects of Person-Centered counseling groups on teachers' stress levels. Research on stress, teacher stress and Person-Centered counseling groups are presented and analysis of data suggests that Person-Centered counseling groups were effective in lowering teacher stress after only six weeks of treatment. Limitations are presented and arguments are made for Person- Centered group counseling to be utilized in schools to assist with teacher stress. 

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  5. Person-Centered Counselors in Community Prevention and Research

    Author: 

    Abassary, Christine and Oetzel, Keri Bolton

    Abstract: 

    The core tenets of a person-centered counseling perspective are similar to the guiding principles of a complementary approach to research. The Community-Based Participatory Research model (CBPR) is outlined to provide counselors with an approach to research that will resonate with a person-centered theoretical framework. In order to improve health outcomes, Minkler and Wallerstein (2008) contended CBPR equitably draws upon the strengths of community members, organizational representatives, and researchers through a collaborative approach. Counselors, working from a community perspective identifying with a person- centered orientation, may find a new avenue to address prevention and research. Specifically, for counselors working in communities where prevention and research are aimed at reducing health disparities, counselors can work within a CBPR framework to form equitable and sustainable partnerships that complement the person- centered counseling perspective. 

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  6. Trust

    Author: 

    Kastberg, Signe M.

    Abstract: 

    Trust is a central element in counseling relationships. The various facets oftrust are identified, and the role of trust in the person- centered approach is explored. Strategies for developing trust and avoiding distrust are discussed, as well as the use of adjunct approaches. 

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  7. A Person-Centered Life--and Death

    Author: 

    Klein, Grace Harlow

    Abstract: 

    A reflection on the life and death of psychologist Armin Klein is writtenbyDr.GraceHarlowKlein. Astatementofexperiencefrom several ofhis clients who helped in his care at the end ofhis life is included. One of his clients wrote extensively of her experience, "In Therapy with Armin." 

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2011, Vol 18, No 1-2
  1. Nathaniel J. Raskin: Encounters in Groups and in His Writings

    Author: 

    Moon, Kathryn A.

    Abstract: 

    Writings by Nathaniel J. Raskin are annotated with mention of his views on person-centered supervision, education, and his relationship with Carl Rogers. The author reviews his 1974 client-centered therapy demonstration. Experiences of Raskin in person-centered groups are described. The reference list updates an earlier bibliography (Raskin, 1989). 

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  2. My Credo as a Person-Centered Psychotherapist

    Author: 

    Braaten, Leif J.

    Abstract: 

    My task is to try to sift out the principles of therapeutic work that I am actually using in my daily work with individuals, couples, business leaders, and groups. I am allowing myself this privilege after some 50 years of dedicated person-centered activities as a clinician, academic teacher, and researcher. I have found certain principles that to me seem necessary for a truly positive person-centered outcome. Some examples are: “You Must Love People, Including Yourself,” “Offer the Client a Relationship Between Two Persons,” and “Bring to the Session Your Honest, Genuine Self.” 

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  3. Teaching and Transformation

    Author: 

    Neville, Bernie

    Abstract: 

    Teachers are involved in the personal transformation of their students whether or not they are comfortable with the idea of “changing” their students. In this paper, the image of an onion is utilized in the discussion of a model of multilayered learning, noting that learning does not take place only at the surface layer of skills and behavior, but also at the deeper layers of perspectives, values and basic assumptions, with different kinds of teaching likely to impact at each level. 

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  4. Person-Centered Principles in Graduate Education

    Author: 

    Culp, Robert A. and Mannion, Christina R.

    Abstract: 

    This paper highlights the major points in Rogers’ 1967 article Graduate Education in Psychology: A Passionate Statement and demonstrates how the article is still relevant to current graduate programs. Rogers’ (1967) implicit assumptions are explored in-depth and his alternative assumptions are presented. As graduate students, we provide specific examples from our own personal experiences to illustrate Rogers’ comments. Student-centered learning, self-determination theory, and Montessori-type programs will be discussed in relation to the implementation of Rogers’ alternative assumptions. This paper presents a personal view of the current state of graduate education, discusses how educational programs could be shifted to be more focused on student-directed learning, and proposes creating training programs that would yield independent, open, and curious psychologists. 

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  5. Professionals’ Treatment Plan and Contract Beliefs and Practices

    Author: 

    Allen, Bruce

    Abstract: 

    Treatment plans with so-called “contracts” are either theoretically irrelevant or antithetical to the Client-Centered approach. However, in the mental health field, they are fairly ubiquitous, especially for Medicaid work. Because of this, I surveyed mental health professionals in one state to see how they used treatment plans with contracts and what they thought of them. I intended to: (a) discover whether these were, indeed, a professionally accepted standard of care (b) compare and contrast Client-Centered respondents with professionals of other orientations. Overall, belief that two of the contract requirements (specifying what goals would be accomplished and how this would be done) were helpful fell between “neutral” and “agree somewhat” on a five-point Likert scale. A third (specifying the time when a goal would be accomplished) fell between “neutral” and “disagree somewhat.” Thus the contract did not appear to be an accepted standard of care. Nor did the plan as a whole: Fifty-one percent of the Medicaid providers said it was related to what they did only “marginally” or “not at all” and 75% said they used it because of legal or clinic regulations. There weren’t enough Client-Centered professionals to allow them to be examined separately, so respondents were combined in two groups, those whose approaches were supposed friendly to the plans and those that were skeptical of them. Statistically, the skeptical and friendly groups differed on how helpful they thought the contract requirements were, although the Friendly group’s means for each of the three requirements still only fell between “Neutral” and Agree Somewhat.” The groups did not differ, however, on how much the plan affected their behavior or why they used it. The results suggest that to make clinical requirements more conducive to Client-Centered practice it would be more helpful to focus on what professionals actually do and what they believe about what they do rather than on theoretical issues. 

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2010, Vol 17, No 1-2
  1. The Kinship between Self Psychology, Intersubjectivity, Relational Psychoanalysis, and the Client-Centered Approach

    Author: 

    Kahn, Edwin

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents for client-centered therapists, unfamiliar with recent developments in psychoanalysis, an overview of three contemporary psychoanalytic approaches: self psychology, intersubjectivity theory, and the relational approach. Despite very important differences, there is some overlap between client-centered therapy and the three psychoanalytic approaches summarized. For example, for both client-centered therapy and self psychology the emphasis is exclusively on the therapist’s empathic understanding, with minimal expression of the therapist’s idiosyncratic subjectivity in the relationship. Although relational psychoanalysts are much more likely to express their idiosyncratic subjectivity in the therapeutic relationship, through self-disclosures, enactments, confrontations, etc., they do so with a respect for the patient’s autonomy and freedom to take or leave what is offered. In contrast to orthodox Freudian psychoanalysis, this attitude of not imposing a therapist’s (or anyone’s) authority has always been a key value of the non-directive client centered approach. Some theoretical ideas of psychoanalysis (e.g. being aware of both the therapist’s and client’s organizing principles/transferences) have interested this author. Another purpose of this paper is a personal description of the author’s development as a psychotherapist. Keywords: relational psychoanalysis, self psychology, intersubjectivity theory, client-centered therapy. 

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  2. An Example of Client-Centered Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Author: 

    Rose, Jon

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents a rationale for offering Client-Centered Therapy to a female medical clinic patient with symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), who was not seeking psychotherapy. Her therapy is on-going, and her progress during the first three years is presented. It is thought that many, if not most, people with PTSD do not seek treatment. It is hoped that this paper will provide a useful model for reaching out to them. Client-Centered Therapy can help clients feel safe to live authentically and/or feel safe enough to pursue other treatments designed specifically for PTSD. 

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  3. Uses and Limitations of the Non-Directivity Paradigm for Therapy with Families in Crisis

    Author: 

    Redekop, Frederick

    Abstract: 

    The non-directivity paradigm is briefly examined in light of family systems theory. Purist and non-purist positions on non-directivity parallel the family systems perspective and the feminist critique of family systems. The complementarity of these polarities are asserted to be essential to counseling. 

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  4. Nonviolent Communication: Tools and Talking-Points for Practicing the Person-Centered Approach

    Author: 

    Mayes, Ian

    Abstract: 

    I see the process of Nonviolent Communication (NVC) as being a set of tools to aid one in practicing the Person-Centered Approach (PCA) within interpersonal relationships. The great value of NVC as I see it is that it enables one to take the PCA, which is usually looked at in a very theoretical way, and make it into a very practical thing that anyone can do. I see great potential for Nonviolent Communication being used to assist in the real-life applicability of the Person-Centered Approach in more and more diverse situations.

    I will briefly examine here some of the key points of the Person-Centered Approach, with a particular emphasis on Carl Rogers’ 1956 document entitled “The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change”, and relate each to their complementary practices that exist within Nonviolent Communication. 

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  5. Inclusion as a Natural Extension of the Person-Centered Approach: Welcoming All Learners

    Author: 

    Walker, Sarah

    Abstract: 

    During my attendance at ADPCA, I could not help but reflect on the benefits that the person-centered approach offers special education. In my professional experience as a teacher and therapeutic staff support, I have often found myself wondering the best way to reach children, and how to help them truly learn. Turning to a collection of essays, papers, and talks given by Carl Rogers gave me a great deal of philosophical direction, and creative inspiration. Looking at research on inclusion, especially by those who advocate and assess the effectiveness of a learner-centered approach to education, the efficacy of the approach became clear to me. Coming away from the conference I felt excited to incorporate the person-centered approach into my future work as a therapist. I now feel prepared to incorporate this approach in my current education profession, and into my own personal life. This paper presents reactions to the 24th Annual Association for the Development of the Person Centered Approach (ADPCA) Conference held at Kutztown University in June, 2009. This paper shares my experiences and reflections on how education and inclusion have been influenced by the Person-Centered Approach, as well as how the Person-Centered Approach can continue to enrich and infill special education practices with life and energy. Case Illustrations. 

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  6. Errata: Teaching Person-Centered Counseling Using a Co-Counseling Experience

    Author: 

    Hess, Maria

    Abstract: 

    Following is Dr. Hess’ full article, which includes material inadvertently deleted from the original publication. We apologize both to the reader and to Dr. Hess.

    Abstract. Rogerian attributes of congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding are at the core of person-centered counseling. The author presents a training model for undergraduates based on these seminal ideals. Included are how to create an emotionally safe environment for acquiring clinical skills, the importance of developing in-class community, how to facilitate choosing co-counselors, and the impact of supervision and feedback. The use of didactic exercises, required papers and reading, co-counseling triads, discussions, relevant self-disclosure, and high student and instructor engagement promotes an interactive, inclusive, clinically challenging course. Teachers and students report high satisfaction with this classroom experience. 

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2009, Vol 16, No 1-2
  1. Questions and Answers: Two Hours with Carl Rogers

    Author: 

    Francis, Kim C.

    Abstract: 

    This project involved a transcription of a 2-hour community meeting with Carl Rogers and more than 100 participants at the summer 1975 workshop titled “A Person-Centered Approach: The Process of Individual Growth and its Social Implications.” During this meeting, Rogers candidly answered questions on a wide range of topics including planning for the workshop, the evolution of the person- centered approach and its meaning to him, partners and “satellite” relationships, encounter groups, therapy issues, how he made personal decisions, and his garden. 

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  2. Education as Relationship Between Persons

    Author: 

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P. and Kosmopoulos, Alexandros V.

    Abstract: 

    Relational dynamic education and counseling is a developing approach that views education as (1) a process that targets the emergence and establishment in the individual of a unique identity and (2) an act, not static but dynamic and fluid, greatly influenced by the quality of the relationships. The fruits of this pedagogy depend heavily on the transformation of the educational relationship into a genuine, person- centered one. It has application in every field of human endeavor where the healthy psychological and spiritual growth of the individual is a goal. In this article, the basic concepts and tenets of this approach are presented. A new teaching model is put forward, based on the quality of person-centered relationships between the student and the teacher. 

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  3. Teaching Person-Centered Counseling Using a Co-Counseling Experience

    Author: 

    Hess, Maria

    Abstract: 

    Rogerian attributes of congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding are at the core of person-centered counseling. The author presents a training model for undergraduates based on these seminal ideals. Included are how to create an emotionally safe environment for acquiring clinical skills, the importance of developing in-class community, how to facilitate choosing co-counselors, and the impact of supervision and feedback. The use of didactic exercises, required papers and reading, co- counseling triads, discussions, relevant self-disclosure, and high student and instructor engagement promotes an interactive, inclusive, clinically challenging course. Teachers and students report high satisfaction with this classroom experience. 

    [This download is not the original print version of the article but instead the errata version that was published in the Journal in a subsequent issue.]

     

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  4. Our Freedom to Learn in Practice: A Description and Analysis of the International Language School Group

    Author: 

    Simonfalvi, Leslie

    Abstract: 

    The author introduces his orientation to the person-centered approach and describes his experience of founding and serving as director of the International Language School Group with its person-centered style. He explores how Rogers’ (1961) personal thoughts on teaching and learning are fulfilled within this context. The author suggests that the school represents a unique, mature example of a Rogerian educational institution and way of being. 

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  5. Vygotsky and Rogers on Education: An Exploration of Two Fundamental Questions

    Author: 

    Test, Joan E. and Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H. D.

    Abstract: 

    This article attempts to introduce the main ideas of Vygotsky’s and Rogers’ theories of education using two fundamental questions to guide the discussion: the purpose of education and how one can facilitate learning. Rogers believed that education should foster self- actualization and democracy. Learning can be facilitated through environments characterized by reciprocal empathy, unconditionality, and authenticity that are flexible to the varied demands of many different learners and the broader educational system. Vygotsky believed that education fostered individuals’ development of higher level thinking in a socio-cultural context, where individuals learn their culture’s ways of thinking and doing. Learning is facilitated primarily through social interaction with more competent adults or peers, who scaffold the learner’s experiences. The reader is invited to consider some areas of potential overlap and difference between Rogers’ and Vygotsky’s theories of education. 

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  6. Darmok and Jalad on the Ocean: A Pop-Culture Exploration of Empathic Understanding

    Author: 

    Levitt, Brian E.

    Abstract: 

    In this paper, I explore empathic understanding vis-à-vis the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation. I present scenes from an episode of The Next Generation as case studies and analyze them to reveal the external and internal nature of language, as well as the “delusion” of a shared language. I also use these scenes to highlight the difference between understanding and empathic understanding, errors in empathic understanding found in the Wisconsin Project, and the usefulness of pre-therapy in expanding therapist awareness and appreciation of empathic understanding. I also delve into the roles played by psychological contact, congruence, and unconditional positive regard in supporting empathic understanding, as illustrated by the pop-culture vignettes I provide. 

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2008, Vol 15, No 1-2
  1. Carl Rogers and Martin Buber in Dialogue: The Meeting of Divergent Paths

    Author: 

    Merrill, Charles

    Abstract: 

    This paper will explore the thinking of Carl Rogers and Martin Buber as related to confirmation, acceptance and dialogue. The work of these seminal thinkers seems more closely connected than at first glance. Each valued authentic relationship and expressed their views to each other in a 1957 conversation or dialogue. I have also brought myself into the paper in a personal way, sharing my experience with dialogue and of being accepted and confirmed in relationship. 

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  2. Paul Tillich and Carl Rogers Conversation: Review with Commentary

    Author: 

    Mouladoudis, Grigoris

    Abstract: 

    The aim of this paper is the review of the content of the conversation—and not of the “dialogue” as I think—held in 1965 between Paul Tillich, the German existential theologian and philosopher, and Carl Rogers, the American psychologist and creator of the person-centered approach1. By using qualitative methodology and presenting their views, I would like to explore six topics all pursued by Rogers with Tillich: (1) the importance of self-affirmation, (2) the nature of man, (3) the basic alienation and estrangement of man, (4) Tillich’s theological language and terminology, (5) the acceptance in interpersonal relations, and (6) what constitutes the optimal person. Finally, I conclude with a commentary regarding their discussion, and I trace the similarities and differences between them. 

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  3. A Rating System for Studying Nondirective Client-Centered Interviews—Revised

    Author: 

    Wilczynski, Jerome, Brodley, Barbara T., and Brody, Anne

    Abstract: 

    This rating system for studying nondirective client-centered interviews modifies and updates preceding unpublished versions (Brodley & Brody, 1990, 1991, 1993; Brody, 1991). It is uniquely distinguished from other client-centered rating scales (e.g., Truax & Carkhuff, 1967; Carkhuff, 1969; Lietaer, 1995; Gundrum, Lietaer & Van Hees-Matthijssen, 1999) because it is the only client-centered rating system that takes into account the therapist’s nondirective intention or attitude when making category or rating distinctions. 

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  4. Nondirectivity: Attitude or Practice?

    Author: 

    Frankel, Marvin and Sommerbeck, Lisbeth

    Abstract: 

    The authors reconsider the rationale for the exclusive use of empathic reflections to ensure a nondirective psychotherapeutic relationship. This model of nondirective therapy is contrasted with the view that the nondirective therapist can be defined in terms of a state of mind rather than by way of specific behaviors. The authors argue that in viewing nondirectivity as an attitude it becomes difficult to exclude any kind of therapeutic exchange since all may be said to emanate from a nondirective attitude. The result is that Rogers’ nondirective therapy turns into Person-Centered Anything (Merry, 1990) and can consequently be insidiously directive. 

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  5. Response-Centered Therapy: The Good, Bad, and Ugly

    Author: 

    Bozarth, Jerold D.

    Abstract: 

    In the article: “Non-Directivity: An Attitude or a Practice?” behaviorism once again becomes the representation of client-centered therapy in an extension of a paper presented by Frankel in 1988 and further outlined in a more recent article by Frankel and Sommerbeck (2005). The fundamental premise of the authors’ argument is that client-centered therapy consists of “rules of engagement” that are adhered to by the therapist without deviation. These rules of engagement are embedded in therapist response repertoire and referred to as unwavering “empathic reflections.” Any deviation from this response style is considered to be a “prod,” which is defined as “any comment made from an external frame of reference (unempathic) that is made to enable the client to either gain insight or give psychological support” (p. 48). With this bit of behavioral sophistry, the authors become the definers and evaluators as well as the dictators of what constitutes the nondirective approach of client-centered therapy. 

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  6. Person-Centered Organizations: Cooperation, Competition, or Separation?

    Author: 

    Uphoff, Andrea and Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H. D.

    Abstract: 

    There are many organizations that share the philosophical underpinnings proposed by Carl Rogers, namely the conditions and attitudes conducive for constructive growth and commitment to relationships based on the concept of the actualizing and formative tendencies. Each organization has specific aims and functions that may differ. If one symbolizes the person-centered approach as an organism, the different organizations, functioning at different levels, contribute to the whole. This article aims to describe four English-language organizations and presents a case for individual and institutional memberships that support the advancement of the person-centered approach within political and institutional arenas. It also highlights ways in which readers could choose to support the person-centered “organism,” halting a current climate of decline. 

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2007, Vol 14, No 1-2
  1. Person-Centered Training and Supervision with Beginning Counselors

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen Hamilton

    Abstract: 

    Although Rogers is a significant influence on current counseling and psychotherapy practice, person-centered therapy is in danger of extinction in the United States. One way to help it grow is by providing quality supervision to students who wish to become person-centered counselors and therapists. This paper introduces a five-factor model of PC training and supervision that is true to Rogers' theory and consistent with current counseling standards.

    Factor 1, communicating the core conditions, is grounded in nondirective communication and the self-actualization principle. A direct application of Rogers' theory of therapy, Factor 1 can be called “counselor-centered supervision.” The remaining four factors communicate trainer/supervisor-centered attitudes.
    Factor 2, training in the core conditions, introduces exercises for enhancing core-condition learning.
    Factor 3, evaluation, encompasses instruction in self-evaluation, supervisor feedback, and complying with external requirements for evaluation.
    Factor 4, supervising theoretical diversity, facilitates congruence in trainees' self-directed theoretical propensities, and
    Factor 5, supervision ethics, asserts PC commitments to the American Counseling Association's (2005) humanistic ethical guidelines and standards of practice.

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  2. Person-Centered Therapy with a Bereaved Father

    Author: 

    Chun-Chuan Wang

    Abstract: 

    This article aims to explore the changing process of a bereaved father who lost his daughter out of the 1999 Taiwan Earthquake. Initially, this father, whom I will call John, greeted me formally and politely, though with implicit distrust. However, in a period of 16 months in which I continually paid visits to the family some long conversations also took place, and John gradually' was willing to trust me. Beyond a recorded in-depth interview with John, I sensed his intense emotions over the loss, and thus invited him for therapy. John finally agreed, and there were seven therapy sessions.
    I worked as a person-centered therapist. In counseling, John chose the topic, issue, and speed, and I followed. I kept field notes for the encounter within 24 hours after each session. The descriptions in this paper came out of the field notes. Two themes - a deeper understanding of John and three major changes in John – emerged from the notes. The three changes were autonomy, flexible views, and feat of retirement. They seem unrelated to each other; however, they are all induced from his grief experience. The application of the person-centered therapy appeared to open a new possibility for the field of grief therapy.

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2006, Vol 13, No 1-2
  1. Promotive Activities in Face-to-Face and Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    Author: 

    Bauer, Christine, Derntl, Michael, Motschnig-Pitrik, Renate, and Tausch, Reinhard

    Abstract: 

    This paper aims to transfer central, influential concepts and ideas from person-centered education into the context of technology-enhanced learning. We systematically review promotive activities and humanistic educational concepts and share our experiences in introducing and actually living these activities and interpersonal attitudes in technology-enhanced environments. Students' reactions confirm the validity of our approach, which proposes to complement personal resourcefulness with Web- supported activities. Our primary goal is to make learning in today's knowledge society a growthful experience for learners as well as facilitators. 

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  2. A Learner's Guide to Person-Centered Education

    Author: 

    Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H. D.

    Abstract: 

    The author provides an orientation to person-centered education for use by educators with their students. The orientation is informed by reviews of both theory and research on person-centered education and is relevant to secondary, undergraduate, and especially graduate programs. A brief review of the effectiveness of person-centered education and its primary goals is followed by a one-page handout. The handout is intended to provide a basis for discussion and informed consent to facilitated learning. 

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  3. Person-Centered Therapists Describe the Counselor’s Self

    Author: 

    Reupert, Andrea

    Abstract: 

    The therapist’s contribution is crucial to therapeutic progress in person-centered therapy. Although Carl Rogers (1951) established the personhood of the therapist as a central element in client change, there is a paucity of research in how person-centered therapists describe and experience the self they bring to therapy. In the research described here, person-centered therapists were interviewed and asked to describe the self they bring to therapy and how they might use this self in therapeutic work. Therapists described the self that they bring to therapy as a central entity that plays an important role in the therapeutic alliance. Rogers’view that the personhood of the therapist is a key part of the therapeutic endeavour is confirmed in this study. The various ways that therapists might use their self, particularly when building relationships and connecting with clients, is also described in the present study. 

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  4. Asperger’s Syndrome: A Client-Centered Approach

    Author: 

    Buck, Michaella and Buck, David P.

    Abstract: 

    The authors provide a historical and descriptive explanation of Asperger’s Syndrome. They assert that Client-Centered Therapy is appropriate with clients who lack the affective emotional relatedness between people. Also, they present a case study involving the application of Client- Centered Therapy with a client suffering from Asperger’s Syndrome. 

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  5. Two Rogers and Congruence: An Opposing View

    Author: 

    Welsch, R. Ted

    Abstract: 

    This article offers counterpoints to “Two Rogers and Congruence: The Emergence of Therapist-Centered Therapy and the Demise of Client- Centered Therapy” (Frankel and Sommerbeck, 2005) contained in the book Embracing Non-directivity: Reassessing Person-Centered Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (Levitt, 2005). I argue that Rogers’ early work included the idea of genuineness along with an empathic acceptant attitude. I submit that the concept of congruence was created before the Wisconsin Project as a core condition of client-centered therapy based on sound research and experience and was not added because of failures. Rogers and his co-workers did not make a category error. Finally, I assert that the nondirective attitude remains valid embedded in client-centered therapy. 

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  6. Response to Ted Welsch’s Opposing View to Two Rogers and Congruence

    Author: 

    Frankel, Marvin and Sommerbeck, Lisbeth

    Abstract: 

    The authors reassert their position that the Carl Rogers who was infamous and indeed famous for presenting a non-directive therapy then authored a much more conventional directive therapy based on the category error that the “person” of the therapist is someone other than the therapist.1 

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  7. Talking with the Late “Pat” Patterson: Selections from Two Interviews

    Author: 

    Patterson, C.H., Jackson, Morrison L., and Nassar-McMillan, Sarah

    Abstract: 

    During his lifetime C. H. Patterson contributed significantly to the growth and enhancement of the person-centered, rehabilitation, and generic counseling, psychology and education movements in the United States and abroad. His work spans several decades. We consider C. H. Patterson to be one of the true disciples of Carl Rogers who made it his mission in life to promote the wonders and effectiveness of the person-centered approach. We were honored and humbled at the opportunity to have interviewed one of the great minds and contributors to theperson-centered counseling movement. This article merges separate interviews of C. H. Patterson conducted in 1999 by Dr. Morris L. Jackson and Dr. Sylvia Nassar- McMillan. For a complete reading of the individual interviews of C. H. Patterson, consult Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 435 879 and Counseling Today, July 1999, Volume 42, No. 1. 

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  8. Come, Stay Awhile: Top Ten Sayings of the Sage

    Author: 

    Patterson, C. H. and Anderson, A. Leslie

    Abstract: 

    In the words of the late Pat Patterson himself, “He will be missed, they say, when a well-known figure dies. But the world goes on—even the most important people die. We come, we stay awhile, we go” (Patterson, n.d.). Such a pragmatic and even-handed attitude characterizes the sayings of this respected teacher, author, and therapist. Patterson’s oft-repeated phrases cover topics from religion and spirituality to psychotherapy to human interactions and the meaning of life. He challenged thinking by shining light on obvious but unacknowledged truths that seem to lurk in popular thought, such as: “By definition, half the population is below average in ability or intelligence. Yet we persist in expecting all students to achieve at or above the average” (Patterson, n.d.). No subject seemed to miss his contemplative gaze. The reader may bounce between nodding agreement and disquietude, but rarely would one experience his words with indifference. Perhaps this response from others is what earned the venerable professor his title, “The Sage of Asheville.” So many of his insights are moving and leave lasting impressions, making it difficult to compile a top 10 list from among his pithy quotes, but I hope you enjoy this brief glimpse. 

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2005, Vol 12, No 1-2
  1. The Nondirective Attitude

    Author: 

    Raskin, Nathaniel J.

    Abstract: 

    Nondirective therapists have for some time been aware of the fact that the attitude of the therapist is the important thing to consider in the evaluation of counselor participation in the therapeutic process. The "recognition of feeling' response, first described in Rogers' (1942) Counseling and Psychotherapy, is the primary technique of the nondirective counselor, and for many people, has become the symbol of nondirective therapy. Too often, however, the appreciation of this school of therapy has been dulled, and its philosophy distorted, by an uncritical evaluation of the "recognition of feeling" technique on a purely intellectual level, in strict separation from the counselor's attitude toward the client, which is the only thing that can give meaning to the technique. 

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  2. The nondirective attitude: An interview with Nathaniel J. Raskin

    Author: 

    Adomitis, R.

    Abstract: 

    I interviewed Nat Raskin via email in the fall of 2005. I have known Nat since I was a student of his at Northwestern in the 1980s, and I was pleased and honored to have the opportunity to probe his memory and thoughts about his classic unpublished article, the circumstances in which he wrote it, and his life and developments in person-centered therapy since then. The interviews were edited for publication. 

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  3. Some Observations from Work with Parents in a Child Therapy Program

    Author: 

    Ellinwood, C.

    Abstract: 

    This paper represents the first step in an examination of experience with parents of children brought to the Counseling Center and seen by members of the Child Therapy Group. These experiences are considered in relation to client-centered theory and to experiences with other adult clients. Special emphasis is placed upon the establishment of the conditions necessary for therapy and the implications of our experience in this area for work with difficult ("failure zone") clients. 

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  4. Philosophical Roots of Person-Centered Therapy in the History of Western Thought

    Author: 

    Van Belle, H. A.

    Abstract: 

    I argue a two-part thesis: that the Person-Centered Approach to therapy has roots as far back as the Greeks and that the Person-Centered Approach resonates with basic themes found in the history of Western thought. To support this thesis, I survey relevant events in the history of Western thought, focusing on the Modem Period movements of Rationalism and Romanticism that appear to have most influenced the Person-Centered Approach. 

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  5. How Xander Harris Saved the World: A Pop-Culture Demonstration of the Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Author: 

    Levitt, B. E.

    Abstract: 

    In this paper I briefly outline sources of understanding transformative human relationships, including quantitative and qualitative research and ethics. I present an argument for drama as another useful source of understanding such relationships. I then explore Rogers' (1959) necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change (the core conditions) vis-a-vis the television series Buffy the Vampire Slqyer. I present scenes from Buffy the Vampire Slayer as case studies, and analyse them to reveal what can happen when the core conditions break down or are not present in a transformative relationship. I also use material from these scenes to demonstrate the transformative power of the core conditions when they are fully present. 

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  6. Effects of Person-Centered Psychological Assistance on Workers in Stressful Jobs

    Author: 

    Osland, K. S., Malouff, J. M., and Alford, W. K.

    Abstract: 

    This paper describes a study that evaluated person-centered psychological assistance in reducing the stress ofworkers in stressful jobs. Randomly-assigned experimental group participants received written information on basic person-centered counseling. Participants were asked to implement these methods while talking with an
    as signed co-worker for 10 minutes a day for one week about the co-worker's stresses or emotions relating to the workplace. Participants in the experimental group completed a distress measure before and after the intervention. Post-intervention distress levels of the experimental group significantly decreased compared to the control group which received no intervention. The findings suggest that providingworkers in stressful jobs opportunities to receive person-centered psychological assistance from co-workers informed about basic person-centered counseling may be helpful in reducing distress. 

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  7. Pas de Deux: An Assistant Professor's Journey in a Person-Centered Independent Study Experience

    Author: 

    McCulloch, L. A.

    Abstract: 

    The reflections of an assistant professor facilitating a graduate student Person- Centered Approach (PCA) independent study experience are presented. A brief introduction to the assistant professor's approach to learning and the events leading up to the independent study are discussed. The assistant professor's journal entries of the person-centered experience, including dates, reflections, related letters, and e-mails are provided. 

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  8. Pas de Deux: A Student's Journey in a Person-Centered Independent Study Experience

    Author: 

    Smith, M. A.

    Abstract: 

    A graduate student reflects on her experience of an independent study of the Person- Centered Approach (PCA). She recounts her initial difficulties with the approach as practiced by one of her professors. She describes a subsequent episode with the professor and considers the episode in terms of her personal growth, the goals of her independent study, and implications for her professional counseling work. 

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2004, Vol 11, No 1-2
  1. Teaching Client-Centered Therapy: A Pilot Analysis of the Empathic Responses of Clinical Psychology Graduate Students

    Author: 

    Wilczynski, J.

    Abstract: 

    This pilot study analyzed the empathic responses recorded on verbatim transcripts of client-centered therapy sessions submitted by graduate clinical psychology students for classes in client-centered therapy. For two groups of transcripts (initial and final), the researcher compared percentages of empathic responses to non-empathic responses as well as assessed empathic response quality. It was found that students delivered fewer non-empathic responses on final transcripts than on initial transcripts. They demonstrated a consistently high percentage of empathic responses on both groups of transcripts. In general, however, the quality of the delivery of these empathic responses remained relatively low.

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  2. The Difference Directiveness Makes: The Ethics and Consequences of Guidance in Psychotherapy

    Author: 

    Witty, M.

    Abstract: 

    Non-directiveness is an attitude of the client-centered therapist. It is the valuational matrix within which the core conditions of acceptance, empathic understanding, and congruence coalesce. The paper explores how departing from this attitude makes a difference in clients’ experiences of psychotherapy. An excerpt from focusing-oriented therapy suggests effects of directivity that re-inscribe the authority of the therapist and undermine clients’ “power to refuse.” It is argued that non-directive client-centered therapy trusts clients as the proper architect of the therapy process and that process directive and experiential therapies do not.

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  3. A Person-Centered View of Diversity In South Africa

    Author: 

    Cilliers, F.

    Abstract: 

    The work of Carl Rogers and Ruth Sanford in South Africa during the 1980's was continued in the form of person-centered diversity awareness workshops. This article describes action and qualitative research on participants’ experiences during and after these workshops. Post workshop interviews indicated that organizational change agents and consultants were exposed to new ways of facilitating learning opportunities which are not based on using classroom techniques and methods, but on their own realness, respect for and ability to put themselves in their client group’s frame of reference. The results highlighted South Africa’s never-ending journey of healing and the showed the need for South Africans’ to integrate race and gender splits, subgroup and individual identities, and denigrated and idealized parts of the self.

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  4. Reflections on the 1966 Dialogue Between Carl Rogers and Michael Polanyi

    Author: 

    Jere Moorman and Will Stillwell

    Abstract: 

    In dialogue format, the authors revisit the issues of scientific and humanistic approaches to human knowing raised by Carl Rogers and Michael Polanyi in their 1966 dialogue. Moorman posits an unreduced and unexplained view of persons and phenomena. Stillwell offers that the use of language necessarily introduces some reductionism. Both value an acceptance of experience. The dialogue concludes with expressions of trust in the making meaning from the ambiguity of existence using concepts like the “tacit,” the “self,” and “indefinitude.”

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  5. Lies: Working Person-Centeredly with Clients Who Lie

    Author: 

    Alan Brice

    Abstract: 

    Many people relish the chance to try to be free of visiting their dangerous and shameful places. After years of suffering the agonies of their lives, they have had enough. In the context of a counselling relationship, they can have the chance to step outside of the critical and negative judgements with which they are familiar. They can begin to value and appreciate themselves. On occasion, being too keen to move on from their past, they can get into difficulties creating a new life within the context of their current world. I have sometimes seen that clients have wanted to block out a part of their world they have not wanted and hoped that they would then be OK. I was intrigued to find that Marcel Proust (1996) had written: “But the absence of one part from a whole is not only that, it is not simply a partial lack, it is a derangement of all the other parts, a new state which it was impossible to foresee in the old” (p. 368). I often see that it is that derangement, or a new state, that can be troublesome.

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  6. “Wasn’t I Good?” An Encounter on the Way to Understanding the Person-Centered Approach

    Author: 

    Marsha A. Smith

    Abstract: 

    present reflections on a person-centered encounter with a client while a graduate student, including a discussion of my spirituality, personal understanding of good, and choice of the Person-Centered Approach as a professional foundation. I had read, talked with my professors and colleagues, and examined my own experiences in order to understand the Person Centered Approach (PCA). This seems now to have been a prelude to an encounter that stays in my heart, demanding my attention—an encounter that integrated my spiritual and person-centered self.

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  7. A Person-Centered Approach to Individuals Experiencing Depression and Anxiety

    Author: 

    Michael M. Tursi and Leslie A. McCulloch

    Abstract: 

    The Person-Centered Approach (PCA) has been effectively used with clients experiencing a wide variety of severe psychiatric symptoms and is appropriate for those experiencing depression and anxiety. The authors outline a study, which investigated the effectiveness of the Person-Centered Approach (PCA) with individuals experiencing depression and anxiety. Participants were pre- and post-tested with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results are mixed regarding the effectiveness of the PCA and support the high co-morbidity rates of depression and anxiety symptoms reported in the literature.

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  8. Book Review: Miracle Moments: The nature of the mind’s power in relationships and psychotherapy

    Author: 

    Arthur C. Bohart

    Abstract: 

    This is fundamentally a book on a spiritual approach to psychotherapy and will be of particular interest to those who have a transpersonal bent. The book consists of two sections. In the first section, Santos reports on a series of interviews with famous therapists: Carl Rogers, Eugene Gendlin, Erving Polster, Virginia Satir, John Grinder, Robert Nemiroff, and Robert Stein. The rest of the book consists of Santos’ explication of his views of the nature of psychopathology and of therapy. His core idea about therapy is that change occurs through the occurrence of “miracle moments”—moments of fundamental and deep meeting...

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  9. Video Review: Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach

    Author: 

    Leslie A. McCulloch

    Abstract: 

    Howard Kirschenbaum is a familiar name to the Person-Centered community. Among his numerous publications are The Carl Rogers Reader (Kirschenbaum & Henderson, 1989) and the biography, On Becoming Carl Rogers (Kirschenbaum, 1979). The biography is a person-centered classic, an outstanding resource so frequently quoted that it is difficult to read anything about Carl Rogers without noting it in the references...

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  10. Book Review: The Client-Centred Therapist in Psychiatric Contexts

    Author: 

    Leslie A. McCulloch

    Abstract: 

    In my experience supervising graduate students in internships, I have observed that students who are humanistically-oriented, particularly those who are Person-Centered, struggle to integrate their theoretical approach into their internship work. They struggle with the predominance of the medical model in the field, the prevalence of cognitivebehavioral approaches in the research literature, and the dominance of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-IV Text Revision. They struggle with the idea that for each disorder there is a prescribed approach that is most effective. They struggle with how to interface with professionals with other orientations and within a system that seems biased away from their approach. They struggle with being taken seriously. And as the students struggle, so do professors, supervisors, fellow interns, staff, and other mental health colleagues...

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2003, Vol 10, No 1
  1. Reflections on Reflecting: How self-awareness promotes personal growth

    Author: 

    Sharon Myers

    Abstract: 

    This qualitative study affirms the role of self-awareness in promoting personal growth. Experiences of sixteen graduate students enrolled in a counselor education program that intentionally requires self-reflection, introspection, and interaction were explored. Through written narratives, participants reported that engaging in activities designed to enhance self-awareness served to promote their personal and professional development. Being engaged in an on-going process of introspection allowed participants to effectively follow a path somewhat parallel to that of clients in therapy. Themes emerging from their narratives included heightened awareness of self, recognition of personal potential, enhanced empathy for self and others, and improved interpersonal relationships. Emerging from their focused efforts in self-reflection, participants reported an expanded sense of self and a confidence in their capacity to become successful counselors.

    Enhanced self-awareness, long the hallmark of psychological health across insight-oriented therapies, offers promising direction for counselor education.

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  2. The analyzed nondirectiveness of a brief, effective person-centered practice

    Author: 

    Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White

    Abstract: 

    A brief person-centered therapy practice is described in terms of the frequency and categorization of nondirective and directive verbal behaviors using 22 clients and 101 taped sessions during a nine-month period. Empathic following responses (91%) followed by nondirective therapist comments (4%) were the most frequently observed behaviors. The therapist spoke about 4 sentences a minute, comprising approximately 28% of the spoken words during therapy sessions. While person-centered nondirectiveness was found to co-exist with therapeutic effectiveness, a pattern was not found between slight differences in nondirectiveness and outcome measures

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  3. The effectiveness of a brief, nondirective person-centered practice

    Author: 

    Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White

    Abstract: 

    This study serves as a replication of earlier findings on the effectiveness of client-centered therapy and a refutation of the need for specificity and directiveness in brief, efficacious treatment. lt also provides a quality low cost model for individual therapists to address the single most stressful aspect of their work, the perception of lack of therapeutic success (Farber & Heifetz, 1982). Using four global indexes, results showed consistent improvement across clients in a college counseling center throughout the weeks of brief therapy, with the most dramatic gains seen within the first four weeks of therapy with virtually every client (97%). The average effect size across outcome measures was 0.97. The research found significant correlations between the various measures, adding to its validity.

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  4. A person-centered approach to the use of projectives in counseling

    Author: 

    Larry Schor

    Abstract: 

    Can the very process of creating stories about pictures and discussing the emergent themes with a trained psychotherapist be helpful in facilitating self-understanding and fostering psychological growth? If so, what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for this process to occur? Following a brief discussion of the fundamental principles surrounding the theoretical construct of apperception, I will explain and advocate for a client-centered approach in the use of projectives to facilitate client self-understanding in a collaborative therapeutic relationship.

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  5. Stella's Stories - Responses to Trauma

    Author: 

    Jill Jones

    Abstract: 

    This article begins with an introduction to trauma responses and a brief comparison of Client-Centered Therapy (CCT.) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) It then presents three stories written by a former client who had experienced persistent trauma both as a child within her family and as a young adult living under a repressive regime The first two stories describe events from her past and the third offers an example of the lasting effects of her experiences. The article concludes with Stella's and my reflections on the therapeutic process. Stella chose the pseudonyms to protect confidentiality and has given written permission for her material to be published.

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  6. Cultural Influences vs. Actualizing Tendency: Is the person-centered approach a universal paradigm?

    Author: 

    Chun-Chuan Wang

    Abstract: 

    This paper explores the role a culture plays under the Person-Centered Approach (PCA) paradigm, and argues the possibility for the PCA to be applied in a collectivist culture. Taiwan, where eastern philosophies and modernization are intertwined, was long colonized and governed in a dictatorial way. In such a context, whether the principle of the PCA is applicable is challenging. In this paper- both the challenges of Chinese culture and the historical and political aspects of Taiwan are reviewed. Additionally, social context and the PCA are contrasted from a perspective of being an individual in a collectivist culture. The PCA’s position is mirrored by some eastern philosophies, and the paper argues that a Taiwanese's natural tendency exists beneath the vicissitude of social context. Taiwanese culture plays a role of blocking people's actualizing tendency. The paper highlights the challenges of some particular cultural blocks. When a growth-promoting climate is created, persons get to experience it. More inner freedom develops, and the natural tendency directs the person to self-actualization.

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  7. An evolutionary shift and emerging heroines/heroes

    Author: 

    Peggy Natiello

    Abstract: 

    Evidence increasingly points to a global paradigm shift that is rapidly unfolding among us and causing grief, fear and confusion. The shift involves an entire reordering of the prevailing egocentric way of seeing and minding, and has enormous consequences for social, political, behavioral, environmental norms underlying our culture's construction. This paper considers the difficulties of moving from a reductionistic view of the world to a more unitary view. The writer looks at the qualities of persons identified by spiritual leaders and social theorists as having the vision and courage to lead us forward. She reflects on attitudes of the person-centered approach as one clearly defined technology that can facilitate global dialogue and a shift in worldview.

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2002, Vol 9, No 2
  1. Empathetic communication for conflict resolution among children

    Author: 

    Jeff L. Cochran

    Abstract: 

    This article presents an empathy-focused approach to conflict resolution among children that is applicable in schools and other settings. The authors illustrate the approach with a case example and with role definitions for speakers, listeners, and facilitators. The authors assert that complete communication (having children in conflict listen to one another and then empathically respond to one another without judgment or bias) is a highly effective and powerful means to conflict resolution. Important interpersonal and intrapersonal benefits include: increased self-efficacy and self-reliance, increased respect for self and others, increased empathy and emotional maturity, and increased skills in developing meaningful friendships. Further, this model may help prevent school violence resulting from children feeling ostracized and unheard. Additional applications are also discussed.

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  2. The wisconsin watershed - or, the universality of CCT; In Memory of John Shlien

    Author: 

    Lisbeth Sommerbeck

    Abstract: 

    This paper argues that the major reasons for the ambiguous and disappointing results of the Wisconsin Project were the failure of the researchers to take client motivation into account and failure of the therapists of the project to respond on a level of concreteness that matched the client's level of expression. The paper asserts that correcting for these two factors leads to the major hypothesis of the Wisconsin Project being, after all, true: Client-centered therapy does effect therapeutic change in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. This result strengthens the hypothesis that client-centered therapy is a universal therapy.

    John Shlien contributed in many ways to the author's critique of the Wisconsin Project. The paper is also the history of his contribution.

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2002, Vol 9, No 1
2001, Vol 8, No 1-2
  1. Dialogical and person-centered approach to psychotherapy: Beyond correspondences and contrasts, toward a fertile interconnection.

    Author: 

    Grigoris Mouladoudis

    Abstract: 

    This manuscript compares Dialogical therapy which is based on Buber's philosophy, with Person-centered approach (PCA) to therapy which is based on Rogers's theory of therapeutic relationships. From the comparison between them, I suppose that Dialogical psychotherapy and PCA represent two separate branches with differences mainly in their theoretical framework but with similarities in their therapeutic practice. Finally discussed are their relation to postmodern thought and constructivist principles and the possibilities for their complementary implementation.

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  2. Nondirective client-centered therapy with children

    Author: 

    Kathryn A. Moon

    Abstract: 

    This paper describes how the nondirective altitude, client-centered theory and the three attitudinal conditions inform and become evident in this therapist’s psychotherapy work with children. It is asserted that the Rogerian attitudinal conditions are sufficient regardless of whether or not the client articulates and understands his or her feelings. Two of Virginia Axline's principles for child therapy are described as being somewhat in contrast with nondirective client-centered theory.

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  3. Psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence of women incest survivors participating in a person-centered expressive arts workshop

    Author: 

    Anne Geronimo

    Abstract: 

    This study investigated the effect on psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence for women incest survivors, engaged in ongoing group psychotherapy, who participated in an Expressive Arts Workshop. The Expressive Arts Workshop utilized a person-centered approach. This approach invited each participant to explain what her art, music, and movement experience was like without interpretation from others. After a participant finished explaining what seemed important to her, group members were encouraged to focus on internal feelings related to what they had witnessed and were invited to share those internal reflections. The results of this study demonstrate that using person-centered expressive arts increases psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence of adult women incest survivors. Thus, person-centered expressive arts used in conjunction with group psychotherapy can be effective in enhancing psychotherapeutic outcome.

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  4. A structured learning exercise in person-centered empathy within a counselor training program

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen Hamilton

    Abstract: 

    The structured exercise in empathic listening is designed to provide counselor trainees with an intensive and deliberate focus on the person-centered empathic process. By far the single most curative factor identified in counseling process and outcome research, empathy deserves lo be a key focus of counselor research and training. Current psychotherapy outcome research estimates of empathy's variance in effecting client positive change occur in the 40% range. This learning exercise is decidedly a highly effective tool for enhancing counselor's capacities to practice empathy; with minimal, if any observable adverse effect on student-selected participants. Qualitative findings from more than 200 counselor trainees over a ten year period, along with a sub-sample of 23 trainees' quantitative results point to the value of the empathy exercise as an especially useful method in counselor empathy training. Experience with the large number of exercises being conducted by trainees suggests that rare instances of a need for one-on-one supervision do occur; and that therefore, the trainer-supervisor must be mindful of the progress, process, and outcome of each case. In-class periodic assessments of general progress, along with individual student meetings and initiation of follow-up as needed are recommended.

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2000, Vol 7, No 2
  1. Empathic understanding grows the person

    Author: 

    Fred Zimring

    Abstract: 

    A new framework will be offered to answer questions about: 1) Why psychotherapeutic change occurs and why empathy has the effect it does; and 2) What are the targets of empathic understanding?

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  2. "Counselling as a social process": A person-centered perspective on a social constructionist approach

    Author: 

    Ivan Ellingham

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents a critical examination from a person-centered perspective of an approach to counseling influenced by the social constructionist thought of Kenneth Gergen. The general postmodernist character of such social constructionism is considered and critiqued, as are certain implications for counselor training and practice. The position is taken that any attempt to introduce social constructionist ideas into the framework of person-centered counseling should be done in a way that does not compromise the fundamental vision of Carl Rogers, its main architect.

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  3. Client-centered therapy: The challenges of clinical practice

    Author: 

    Elizabeth Freire

    Abstract: 

    From the realization that there is a great gap between the theory of client-centered therapy and its practice, the authors aim to investigate the difficulties and the challenges which arise in the client-centered therapists clinical practice. The therapist's trust in the client's actualizing tendency, indispensable to the success of the therapeutic process, is not attained only through a theoretical knowledge of client-centered therapy. Indeed, it is necessary that the therapist has herself experienced the process of therapeutic change promoted by this approach. The authors analyze the elements of change that need to be experienced by the therapist of a successful client-centered practice. Stages in the therapist's development are also considered.

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  4. Personal presence in client-centered therapy

    Author: 

    Barbara T. Brodley

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents two conceptions of "presence" found in Rogers' writings about client-centered therapy. The first conception is a naturalistic one emphasizing the openness and immediacy of the therapist in the relationship. The second builds on the first, adding an element of spirituality or mysticism. Expressing my rejection of Rogers' second conception, I discuss the phenomena of presence and compare Rogers' spiritual or mystical interpretations to my own naturalistic interpretations of similar experiences. Finally, I describe a small pilot study of presence that shows the concept can be meaningful to clients.

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  5. Person Centered Medical Practice

    Author: 

    Susan Bonner Schwarz

    Abstract: 

    This paper looks at the possibility of applying a person-centered approach to medical care within an HMO. It discusses the difficulties and rewards of such a practice. The author presents a further challenge to all interested in PCA to continue to influence behavior and policy within the managed care model.

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2000, Vol 7, No 1
  1. Japanese poetry and the client-centered approach

    Author: 

    Sachiko Hayashi

    Abstract: 

    A form of Japanese linked poetry style, renku, is composed by two or more people as a group. In this paper the authors illuminate the therapeutic aspect of the renku-composing process. Renku allows participants to demonstrate their distinctiveness while maintaining the sense of togetherness, or "vacuum" Personality changes take place in the "vacuum. " The significance of the renku setting and vacuum is discussed from the viewpoint of Taoistic philosophy. A renku group offers us a unique setting in which individuals can free their intuition and engage in dialogue among their whole personalities. Authors then compare a renku group with an intensive group and with Focusing. Renku is a metaphor and circumlocution of our experiencing relationships with other persons and with nature.

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  2. Construct validity of the core conditions and factor structure of the client evalulation of counselor scale

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen Hamilton

    Abstract: 

    The Client Evaluation of Counselor Scale (CECS) was developed by the author and used to obtain 135 client's evaluations of their counselor's in-session altitudes and behaviors, along with client's reported satisfaction with their counseling experience. Practicum/internship counselors (n : 35) participating in the study represented themselves as preferring a variety of theoretical orientations. For purposes of the present report, clients' evaluations of the core conditions (as defined by specific CECS items) were appraised with regard lo the variables with which they were most highly correlated. Global profiles of an understanding/empathic, an accepting/unconditionally positively regarding, and a genuine counselor were derived from statistical data on face valid and content valid items as revealed by clients' reports. These core condition profiles compare well with traditional conceptualizations of the core conditions. Twelve empirically-factored counselor styles/dimensions were identified; most included both theory specific and non-specific variables (survey items); and all correlated significantly with counseling outcome. Results are compared and contrasted with current research on counseling process and outcome, with person-centered concepts in particular addressed. The present research provides support for the views that multifarious therapist approaches are correlated with positive client outcomes; that person-centered characteristics appear to be especially strong correlates of client positive outcome; and that perhaps the most significant component of both counselor embodiment of the core conditions and client positive outcome is the client's perception of the therapist as a well-adjusted person.

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  3. The multifaceted nature of congruence within the therapeutic relationship

    Author: 

    Gill Wyatt

    Abstract: 

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the holistic nature of congruence. An overview of previous literature on congruence is offered. The metaphor of a diamond is used to symbolize the complex and multifaceted nature of congruence, where the brilliance of the diamond comes from its entirety as well as the integrity of each facet. Each facet is examined individually. The significance of looking at congruence as a whole is emphasized in relation to accessing, via the actualizing tendency, a greater healing potential and beyond - to something greater - an interconnectedness with the universe.

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  4. Natalie Rogers' Psychotherapy with Robin: Critique and Analyses

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen Hamilton

    Abstract: 

    Master's candidates in counseling psychology, along with their seminar supervisor discuss, debate, and summarize their reactions to Natalie Rogers' therapy demonstration video. Responses are candid and cover a broad range of perspectives. The reviewers address various philosophical and practice issues that converge on two central themes: that is person-centered therapy, and what is good therapy. Following the dialogue, reactions to the video and to the critique process are presented.

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1999, Vol 6, No 2
  1. Examining unconditional positive regard as the primary condition of therapeutic personality change

    Author: 

    Ken Tyler

    Abstract: 

    This paper compares Rogers' early formulation of the theory of personality and behavior (Rogers, 1951), which has become known as "The Nineteen Propositions," with his main statement of personality theory (Rogers, 1959). The theoretical developments which took place during those few intervening years, particularly in relation to unconditional positive regard, throw some light on, and support, Jerold Bozarth's reconceplualization of unconditional positive regard as "The primary condition of therapeutic personality change" (Bozarth, 1996, p.44). In this paper I want to describe those changes and demonstrate their importance to the development of person-centered theory.

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  2. Carl Rogers' 'Congruence' as an organismic; not a freudian concept

    Author: 

    Ivan Ellingham

    Abstract: 

    The principal purpose of this paper is to illumine the extent to which Carl Rogers' characterization of the central person-centered concept of congruence is couched in terms of a Cartesian-Newtonian, paradigmatic world-view mediated by the theoretical formulations of Sigmund Freud. Crucial problems in such a quasi-Freudian characterization of congruence are delineated demonstrative of a critical flaw in person-centered theory as a whole: its being a mix of concepts deriving from the discrepant Cartesian-Newtonian and organismic scientific paradigms. The re-formulation of congruence in organismic terms is envisaged as part of a general need to conceptualize all key person-centered concepts in such a fashion. 

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  3. Empathy: Is that what I hear you saying?

    Author: 

    Sharon Myers

    Abstract: 

    This paper reviews the client-centered approach to empathy with a view toward uncovering relational themes in Rogers' original conceptualization. Challenging traditional versions of empathy which reduced the concept to a special quality of the therapist or to a precise communication skill, this paper argues that empathy is an interactional variable, not well suited to theoretical definition. A model emerges for understanding empathy as on aspect of the interactional relationship which develops between counselor and client.

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  4. Humility as an important attitude in overcoming a rupture in the therapeutic relationship

    Author: 

    Ladislav Timulák

    Abstract: 

    This paper depicts the therapist's share of possible ruptures in the client-counselor relationship. It presents an attitude toward these ruptures which can facilitate the therapeutic and the client's process. It distinguishes two kinds of rupture: unspoken rupture which can be discovered by the therapist without the client's explicit pointing at it; and explicit rupture which is expressed by the client. The most important feature of the paper is the presentation of a specific therapist altitude--that of humility--which when held onto by the therapist can facilitate using ruptures for therapeutic goals. The attitude of humility towards ones own imperfections as a therapist, and towards the client's view of the therapeutic relationship and therapy is developed through description and exemplification.

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  5. Client-Centered therapy in the care of the mentally handicapped

    Author: 

    Hans Peters

    Abstract: 

    Regarding the treatment of mentally handicapped persons, three approaches toward treatment are possible. The first approach involves influencing the relationship between ward personnel and mentally handicapped persons. The second approach is the therapeutic treatment of mentally handicapped persons by means of mediation therapy, which means that the therapist is responsible for starting up, administering, revising and supervising treatment, but that the treatment itself is administered by ward personnel, parents and/or other persons. This implicitly means that, in imitation of Rogers, I consider empathic understanding and empathic responding as an attitude as well as a skill that can be learned. The third approach is treatment of the mentally handicapped person administered by the psychotherapist. In the following, I wish to elaborate on these three approaches. My work with mentally handicapped clients follows in a client-centered, as well as, a behavior-therapeutic frame of reference, and I am an advocate of a combination of methods (see e.g.., Peters, 1984, 1991, 1992 and 1999), I will hereby limit myself to the administration of client centered practice in the treatment of these persons.

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1999, Vol 6, No 1
  1. Pre-Therapy: Is it person-centered?: A reply to Jerold Bozarth

    Author: 

    Garry Prouty

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents Pre-Therapy as an evolution of Client-Centered therapy, while Pre-Symbolic Experiencing is seen as an evolution of Experiential therapy. Rogers considered Pre-Therapy to be of significance for the Client-Centered approach. Pre-Therapy emphasizes empathic contact, and is a theory of psychological contact. Pre-Therapy is not process-directive as is the case with Process-Experiential therapy, but surrenders to and follows the pre-expressive attempts of the client.

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  2. To what extent do clients discriminate among the group leader's basic therapeutic attitudes? A person-centered contribution.

    Author: 

    Leif J. Braaten

    Abstract: 

    Ever since Rogers (1957) launched his elegant and provocative model of therapeutic personality change, the main focus of researchers and clinicians has been on the therapist-offered conditions of accurate empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness. Too little attention has been paid to how clients can perceive and discriminate between these conditions. In this study 1,119 client evaluations were collected from 136 participants in 16 therapy groups of 15 three hour sessions, using a self-constructed group climate questionnaire with 15 items carefully tapping the classical person-centered conditions. A varimax factor analysis revealed a rather conclusive three factors solution. The first factor, accounting for 60.0 % of the variance, was called empathic positive regard, a condition obviously integrating accurate empathy and unconditional positive regard. The second factor, accounting for 12.4 % of the variance, was labeled genuineness. And finally, the third factor, accounting for 5.8 % of the variance, was named anxiety/vulnerability.

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  3. The client-centered ecopsychologist

    Author: 

    Bernie Neville

    Abstract: 

    Client-centered therapy and ecopsychology start from very different ways of imagining the place of individuals in the world. However, in the tension between these two perspectives there is the potential for enriching both of them.

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1998, Vol 5, No 2
  1. Congruence and its relation to communication in client-centered therapy

    Author: 

    Barbara T. Brodley

    Abstract: 

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss Carl Rogers' concept of congruence and its relation to communication. In the communication context, the concept of congruence is sometimes misunderstood as simply "matching"-- matching symbolization to experience, or matching subjective symbolization to communication while its theoretical definition has been given insufficient attention. Communication in relation to congruence also has been misunderstood to involve saying what one is thinking or feeling in the moment.

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  2. Near enemies in psychotherapy

    Author: 

    Suzanne Hidore

    Abstract: 

    The core conditions stated by Carl Rogers as necessary and sufficient for constructive personality change are vulnerable to misuse even by therapists whose original purpose is of studied and pure intent. Kornfield's elucidation of the Buddhist concept of The Near Enemies is used as a perspective to understand the core conditions. Greater self-awareness of the experience of empathy and unconditional positive regard allows an opportunity for therapists to be personally congruent with the purpose of the core conditions. Attachment, pity and indifference are discussed as traps to intended outcomes in psychotherapy.

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  3. The six necessary and sufficient conditions applied to working with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients

    Author: 

    Dominic Davies

    Abstract: 

    The six necessary and sufficient conditions (Rogers, 1957) are offered as a conceptual framework for therapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. "Cay affirmative therapy" represents a special range of psychological knowledge which challenges the traditional view, that homosexual desire and fixed homosexual orientations are pathological.

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  4. A person-centered application to test anxiety

    Author: 

    Laurie L. Silverstein

    Abstract: 

    Literature examining the treatment of test anxiety over the last few decades focuses primarily on the efficacy of cognitive and behavioral interventions (e.g., Allen, 1972; Meichenbaum, 1972, 1977). Over time, interventions have become even more symptom-specific (e.g., Broota & Sanghvi, 1994; Gosselin & Matthews, 1995). However, some researchers suggest that anxiety-focused approaches nay not improve performance, and skills acquisition and training nay not reduce anxiety (e.g., Klinger, I984; Paulman & Kennelley, I984). While some studies suggest that person-centered variables enhance therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of test anxiety, almost no literature exists comparing the efficacy of these different approaches (e.g., Ryan & Moses, 1979; Payne, 1985). A case summary describes a person-centered application to the treatment of test anxiety as a nondirective, individualized alternative to symptom-specific modalities.

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  5. Neuropsychological assessment as a means toward greater empathy and communication with brain-damaged clients

    Author: 

    Jon Rose

    Abstract: 

    Two case examples demonstrate how formal assessment of cognitive functioning can enhance and clarify empathizing with the emotions and verbal expressions of brain-injured clients. Neuropsychological Assessment, broadly defined to include information gathered from others, behavioral and systematic observation, careful listening to the patient and standardized tests, can explain how brain-injured people think. This can enhance our ability to know and reflect on what it is like to be them (empathy).

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  6. Changing chronic problem behavior in primary schools: a client-centered ecosystemic approach for teachers

    Author: 

    Ken Tyler

    Abstract: 

    In the ecosystemic approach, if something changes in the interpersonal system, the problem behavior will change. The importance of using the core conditions in implementing the ecosystemic approach was demonstrated for two types of interventions, the first based on "positive attribution;" the second based on empathic response. Ecosystemics incorporated with the person-centered approach offers a range of techniques for addressing problem behaviors in schools.

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1998, Vol 5, No 1
  1. Carl Rogers and Transpersonal Psychology

    Author: 

    John K. Wood

    Abstract: 

    The claims that Carl Rogers was what is presently understood as a "transpersonal psychologist " or that he had converted to a "transpersonal movement" by virtue of various late-in-life experiences are shown to be unwarranted.

    To understand his complex relationship with these subjects, it is noted that Rogers did not conform with much of the behavior with which they are associated. Nevertheless, he did have, from the beginning of his work in client-centered therapy, experiences which must be considered congenial with the essence of the "transpersonal."

    The purpose of this article is to recognize the distinction between outward appearance and one's legitimate inner experience and to encourage a deeper exploration of this difference.

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  2. Criteria for making empathic responses in client-centered therapy

    Author: 

    Barbara T. Brodley

    Abstract: 

    The criteria for communicating empathic understanding described in this paper are based on my work as a client-centered therapist. As my therapy evolved, I only gradually identified these criteria and recognized that they express the nondirective attitude that informs my practice. An early version of the paper was prepared for the First International Forum on the Person-Centered Approach in Mexico in 1982. An excerpt was published in the ADPCA newsletter, Renaissance, in 1984. In 1986 Carl Rogers published his article on "reflection of feelings" which gave support to my thesis that the client-centered therapist's intention in responding empathically is to verify understanding, not to manipulate the client's process nor to foster any therapist goal for the client. The fundamental nondirectiveness in client-centered work seems to be difficult for some students to understand or, perhaps, to believe. My hope that this paper will help to clarify the meaning of the nondirective attitude in empathic interaction process as well as clarify the criteria for overt empathic responding in client-centered therapy.

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  3. Special Section: Poems

    Author: 

    Thair R. Dieffenbach

    Abstract: 

    “A Plea for Understanding” by Thair R. Dieffenbach;

    “Pretense” by Nicholas Mazza, Ph.D., Florida State University

    “Haiku Poems” by Joe Utay, Eastern Kentucky University

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1997, Vol 4, No 1
  1. The primary prevention of psychosocial disorders: A person/client-centered perspective

    Author: 

    Suzanne Hidore

    Abstract: 

    Psychotherapy is the treatment for psychological disorders deriving from disturbed interpersonal relationships. The essence of psychotherapy is love, or agape. It is argued that it follows that love is the primary prevention of psychosocial disorders. Unconditional love in infancy and early childhood is necessary for the normal psychosocial development of all human beings. Steps to be taken for proactive intervention are included. Published literature is cited to support the thesis and conclusions.

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  2. Central dynamics in client-centered therapy training

    Author: 

    David Mearns

    Abstract: 

    This paper is the first of a series of publications which seek to stimulate dialogue on the issues involved in offering a professional level of training for client-centered therapists in a fashion which is both consistent with the person-centered approach as well as accountable to the professional world of therapists and clients. Rather then withdrawing from the world of mainstream education on the grounds that it is incompatible with person-centered philosophy, the writer prefers to use the person-centered approach to inform higher education. The present paper explores four training dynamics around “responsibility,” “self-acceptance,” the “individualizing of the curriculum” and the “individualization of assessment” as central to the relationship between trainees and Faculty.

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1996, Vol 3, No 1
  1. Similarities between Rousseau's discourse on the origins of inequality among men and concepts in person-centered counselling

    Author: 

    Kevin A. Curtin

    Abstract: 

    In his second discourse, Jean Jacques Rousseau claims that human beings were most happy and free in their instinctive natural state and that social institutions are responsible for the corruption of humankind. For counselors and their clients, the goal is to maximize this original human nature through person-centered psychotherapy, that encourages the concepts of self-actualization, autonomy, and empathy.

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  2. A theoretical reconceptualization of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change

    Author: 

    Jerold D. Bozarth

    Abstract: 

    In this paper, Unconditional Positive Regard is presented as the primary condition of therapeutic personality change. Genuineness and Empathic Understanding are viewed as two contextual attitudes. The concept of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change is reconceptualized in a way consistent with this view. The reconceptualization entails (a) genuineness being viewed as a therapist state of readiness that enables the therapist to better experience the client with empathic understanding of the client's internal frame of reference and to experience unconditional positive regard towards the client; (b) empathic understanding being viewed as the action state of the therapist in which the client is accepted as he or she is at any given moment. The understanding of the client's internal frame of reference by the therapist is viewed as the most optimal way for the client to experience unconditional positive regard; and (c) unconditional positive regard being viewed as the primary change agent in which the client's needs for positive regard and positive self regard are met and the actualizing tendency of the individual is promoted.

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  3. An inquiry into child-centered therapy

    Author: 

    Freda Doster

    Abstract: 

    This paper discusses the utilization of play therapy as an appropriate therapeutic method in the counseling of children. It identifies the theoretical basis of child-centered therapy, the attitudes necessary for the therapist, and the therapeutic conditions necessary for growth. It also outlines the limits which should be set in regards to child-centered therapy.

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1995, Vol 2, No 2
  1. Person-centered therapy: A misunderstood paradigmatic difference?

    Author: 

    Jerold D. Bozarth

    Abstract: 

    This paper focuses on several misunderstandings of the person-centered approach which criticize Rogers’s conceptualization of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change (Fay & Lazarus, 1992; Norcross, 1992) and Rogers’s theory in general (Cain, 1993; Quinn, 1993). Several of their points are examined and their positions of inquiry challenged from the context of Rogers’s theory. The misunderstandings of client-centered theory and practice as interpreted from the framework of other theoretical positions raise an issue of the paradigmatic difference of person-centered therapy from other theories of therapy.

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  2. The person-centered approach: toward an understanding of its implications

    Author: 

    John Keith Wood

    Abstract: 

    The person-centered approach is not a psychology, a psychotherapy, a philosophy, a school, a movement nor many other things frequently imagined. It is merely what its name suggests, an approach. It is a psychological posture, a way of being, from which one may confront various aspects of human behavior. The best known activity it has been applied to is client-centered therapy, which is a psychotherapy, has a theory, a method and has accumulated a substantial body of research generally supporting its theoretical assertions. This article considers the same sixty years of applications of the person-centered approach to phenomena which include – as well as psychotherapy – education, encounter groups, and large groups intended to improve transnational understanding, to explore intergroup conflicts, to learn the nature of culture and its process of formation.

    Observations over the last thirty years have revealed shortcomings in the psychology of client-centered therapy, as a suitable theory for applications of the person-centered approach. A direction is indicated for the formulation of an appropriate psychology for all of the application – including client-centered therapy itself. Reflection on this discussion might also inform the practice of psychotherapy as well as suggesting “interdisciplinary” projects that would be naturally unified by the paradigm proposed.

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  3. A new explanation for the beneficial results of client centered therapy: the possibility of of a new paradigm

    Author: 

    Fred Zimring

    Abstract: 

    In this paper the usual idea that our psychological problems are caused by unknown feelings and experiencing is questioned and an alternative understanding of the reason for our problems is proposed. More specifically, Rogers’s explanation that the success of his methods occurs because of increased awareness of unknown experience is questioned. Instead, it is proposed that our problems are due to the nature of our internal framework, rather than to feelings of which we are not aware. Our problems are seen as arising when our framework incorporates the more objective standards of the world and fails to develop the more subjective aspects. How having a more subjective or objective internal world affects our experience is discussed and how the “necessary and sufficient” conditions and the “mini-culture” of client-centered therapy develops these subjective aspects is described.

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  4. Individual experiencing in person-centered community workshops: a cross-cultural study

    Author: 

    Jeanne P. Stubbs

    Abstract: 

    This study is a qualitative case study of heuristic methodology whose focus was to investigate the individual experiencing of participants of person-centered community workshops. Data was gathered through open-ended interviews with fifteen participants of these workshops from a cross-cultural sample representing nine countries. The findings supported the construct of the actualizing tendency. Other theoretical findings pertaining to the application of the person-centered approach to community groups suggest differential emphasis of the core conditions of unconditional positive regard, genuineness and empathy, non-specificity of facilitator characteristics, and support of the theoretical premise of non-directiveness. Implications of the findings of the study suggest empathy as a less important condition in the person-centered community group, first experiences in those workshops as having the most impact, and a need for further research in person-centered community workshops as related to “the forming of community.”

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  5. Emergence of theory and methodology for a human system model of positive health: an interview with Jules Seeman

    Author: 

    Kristin S. Sturdevant

    Abstract: 

    At the Annual Conference of the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach in 1994, I asked Jules if I might interview him. As a member of a panel earlier in the day in which participants talked about client-centered theory early in its development, Jules spoke of a “lost piece” of his history early in development of client-centered theory. Jules also talked about his theory, a human system model of positive health. Moreover, he described the basic methodology which therapists from this theoretical perspective might enter a client’s “system” by making connection, and facilitating therapeutic growth through communication. My purpose in interviewing Jules is threefold. I would like others to hear Jules tell his story – that is, to tell how his ideas emerged, found a home in Rogerian theory, and continue to unfold. I would like to acknowledge the “lost piece” in Jules’s history. And I hope to provide others with a narrative account of the development of client-centered (now person-centered) theory and how complimentary person-centered theory is to human systems theory, for which Jules has not only a conceptual definition, but a methodology.

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1995, Vol 2, No 1
  1. The dance of empathy: empathy, diversity, and technical eclecticism

    Author: 

    Arthur C. Bohart

    Abstract: 

    An integrative model of psychotherapy is presented in which the therapist can use techniques and “interventions,” but from a fundamentally person-centered stance. It is argued that ultimately all therapy is self-help and that it is clients who heal themselves. However the therapeutic relationship is a particularly useful “self-help space” in which clients can grow. Therapy is therefore fundamentally relational, with technology second. In a relational model of therapy, empathy is important and conceived of as resonance. Appreciation of the client becomes a major modality of relating. Techniques can be offered as ways of appreciating, empathizing with, and relating to clients. Empathy and experiencing are conceived of in fundamentally aesthetic terms.

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  2. A universal system of psychotherapy

    Author: 

    C. H. Patterson

    Abstract: 

    Currently it is generally accepted that existing theories and approaches to psychotherapy developed in Western cultures, are not applicable to other cultures. A model is proposed that, while based on certain theoretical and research foundations in Western culture, also recognizes and derives from universal drives, motivations and goals of all human beings, indeed of all living organisms. It is therefore neither time nor culture bound.

    The model is developed in terms of three levels of goals: (1) the ultimate goal, common to all clients; (2) mediate goals, that allow for cultural and individual differences; and (3) the immediate goal, involving the therapy relationship. The therapist conditions necessary, and possibly sufficient, for the development of a relationship leading to the achievement of the achievement of the mediate and ultimate goals are defined.

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  3. A person-centered view of depression: Women's experiences.

    Author: 

    Charlene K. Schneider

    Abstract: 

    Openness to another’s experience is fostered by broad knowledge, not by ignorance. Diagnostic information can obscure a client’s experiences if it is taken as definitive, but it can enlarge a therapist’s repertoire of understandings if it is used tentatively. Knowledge of experiences that occur frequently among people who share a diagnosis can sensitize a therapist to experiences that a particular client may try to convey. Four women previously treated for depression were interviewed intensively in search for common experiences. Within their different personalities, backgrounds, and personal circumstances, these particular women seemed to share a constellation of emotional experiences that could be organized around their history of sexual and physical or emotional abuse.

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  4. Maintaining a person-centered approach in a highly technological society

    Author: 

    Jay T. Willis

    Abstract: 

    This paper suggests that, contrary to popular opinion, it is possible to have a “high-tech/high-touch” society. Some of the qualities of a highly technological society are discussed. An attempt is then made to demonstrate a number of compatibilities between person-centered values and the values of a highly technological society. It is suggested, we need not fear that the individual will be depersonalized or demeaned in a continually advancing technological society, but that the individual will find greater freedom of expression and individuality in this rapidly advancing technological society – perhaps greater than in any previous historical era.

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  5. We-Rhythm Therapy

    Author: 

    David J. Alpert

    Abstract: 

    The author presents a new model of psychotherapy which is in the person-centered tradition, but which is especially distinctive in its affirmation of the We-Experience (genuine mutual connectedness between the client and the psychotherapist) as the most theoretically potent component of the psychotherapeutic relationship. The author posits that a high level of psychotherapist integration can enable the psychotherapist to have sufficient sensitivity to the more and less subtle sources of information in the psychotherapeutic relationship. Then through the psychotherapist’s actions based on this sensitivity, the client may preponderantly experience this psychotherapeutic relationship as flowing, as an on-going We-Experience, rather than as being disjointed. This new psychotherapeutic model has been named “We-Rhythm Therapy.”

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1994, Vol 1, No 3
  1. To my therapist

    Author: 

    Miriam Bassuk

    Abstract: 

    To My Therapist

    You have been a patient bystander,
    witness and lantern carrier
    lighting the way.
    I saw you first and last as father
    a good rnan
    raising me up with the warmth
    of acceptance
    and the sturdy intelligence of your words.

    The message to look deeper
    at who this self is
    that I call me
    arnplifying, clarifying,
    finding the borders
    and then filling in
    the empty, often contradictory space
    inviting me to give up
    an archaic father image
    and replace it with openness
    to new information

    Celebrating rny growth
    into independence
    by sharing your truth
    and beauty of song and sound
    of adventurous trips
    stretching out your borders
    knowing your own self better
    teaching and touching

    I honor your being,
    and thank you for being there for me.

    From Your Client
    Miriam Bassuk

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  2. Editorial, Vol 1, No 3

    Author: 

    Jerold D. Bozarth

    Abstract: 

    This edition offers a range of topics relevant to the Person-Centered Approach. They range
    from comparative theoretical discussions to consideration of self inquiry to description of
    relevance of the approach to our societal systems. In addition, one article from the last issue and
    corrections on another of the articles are re-printed from the previous issue because of printing
    errors.

    It is unfortunate that several errors occurred in the last issue during the publishing stage.
    They were especially distressing to the authors in that meaning could have been misunderstood
    in some places and continuity broken in other places. Fred Zimring, Jeanne Stubbs, and I took
    special pains to review the final copy given to the printer. Nevertheless, a computer glitch on a
    new printing program resulted in missing pages and in the distorted printing of several pages.
    Hence, the publisher re-printed one article (John K. Wood's article) in this issue and printed
    corrections of another article (Barth & Sanford's article).

    As a result of these problems, a policy change has been implemented. Authors will now be
    sent the ready to press (similar to a galley) copy of their article for review. This should minimize
    the probability of such errors occurring again.

    Also, announcements will be limited to a short statement and address of contact in order to
    save page space. Related to this is a question considered at ADPCA concerning solicitation of
    advertising. It was decided to not solicit advertising at this time. Details of this possibility are
    reported in the Renaissance.

    We are still trying to offer a transcript ofa therapy interview in each issue. If you have a written
    typescript you would like to submit, please submit it along with your comments on the session.
    Other individuals may also be asked to comment upon it. In spite of the problems with the
    previous issue, I believe we are progressing with our journal.--JDB

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  3. Empathy toward client perception of therapist intent: Evaluating one's person-centeredness

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen

    Abstract: 

    Evaluating one's own person-centeredness can be facilitated by asking the question, "What is the client's perception of the therapist's intent" The present paper asserts that from a person-centered approach, the client's perceptual stance is the context for relationship development, and a context within which the therapist's response must be evaluated. Empathy with the client's phenomenal world of the therapists' intent can be a guide for evaluating therapeutic person-centeredness. To assure that the therapist manifests a trust in the client's self-actualization tendency, it is critical to assess the client's perception that this is so.

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  4. The public expression of private experience: A relativity unexplored dimension of person-centered psychology

    Author: 

    J. Guthrie Ford

    Abstract: 

    The congruence of psychological "pairs" is central to person-centered psychology. Two well-known pairs are the perceived self and ideal aspirations, and the perceived self and experiences of the organism. There is yet another pair that is relatively unexplored. One element of this pair is the private (covert) process; the other is the public (oven) process. Rogers has described the incongruence of these processes and the psychological consequences of this incongruence, My students and I have developed a way to measure public/private incongruence, documented the association between incongruence and maladjustment, and integrated public/private incongruence into person-centered theory. Should you read any further? Well, if you have ever said, "Let others know the real you," you may feel congruent and wise after reading this article.

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  5. Extending Roger's thoughts on human destructiveness

    Author: 

    J. Guthrie Ford

    Abstract: 

    Carl Rogers explicitly described children's urges to inflict pain, a male organism directing a sexual assault on young girls, and a mother's organic need to aggress against her child. In light of these recognitions of human destructiveness by Rogers, Quinn (1993) has recently challenged the commitment of person-centered psychologists to the wholly constructive actualizing tendency. Quinn (1993) has argued for destructiveness being equally "at core" with constructive organismic capacities. He has also asserted that this possibility was acknowledged, although inadvertently so, by Rogers himself, through various descriptions (admissions to?) human destructiveness. If person-centered psychology is equivocal about the inherentness of human destructiveness, then many person-centered deductions and applications become clouded. Quinn (1993) focused on client-centered therapy, arguing that the client's organismic valuing process, which may well include destructive features, has limited adaptive benefit. Although I do not find that Rogers recognized destructiveness as an inherent directionality, it is true that person-centered theory has not dealt with negative human behaviors in conceptually satisfying ways. This paper is a start toward changing that. Four explicit "cases" of human destructiveness are taken from prominent works and are explained by person-centered constructs and specific processes which Rogers saw as relevant to the actualization of destructiveness. The paper concludes with critical reflection on Quinn's (1993) developmental-interactional approach to psychotherapy, an alterative to the client-centered approach.

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  6. A discussion of contributions by Gregory Bateson and Carl Rogers via an analysis of two seminal papers

    Author: 

    Patric Pentony

    Abstract: 

    The paper begins with an examination of the logical premises on which Gregory Bateson and his associates based their "Double Bind" hypothesis of the etiology of schizophrenia. It goes on to demonstrate that in the specification of the hypothesis, the authors failed to adhere strictly to these premises with the result that confusion arose as to what was meant by a "double bind." Having located the source of confusion the paper then takes up Ackerman's point that the classical paradoxes, in which an incongruity in messages at different levels is buried in a single statement, is not an appropriate model for understanding interactional sequences. His alternative showing how classificatory type messages buried in interactional sequences can result in entangled communication is developed both to indicate the core of value in the "double bind" approach and to outline the wider implications of the issues involved. These wider implications are then brought out in an analysis of a logical defect in Carl Rogers's paper on "The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Therapeutic Personality Change." Finally it is shown that the "Reflection of Feeling Response" developed by Rogers and his students utilizes different levels of communication in achieving its effects.

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  7. Notes on the relationship between person-centered theory and the emerging field of health psychology: Indications and suggestions for theory, research, and practice

    Author: 

    Donald G. Tritt

    Abstract: 

    Notes on the relationship between person-centered theory and the emerging field of health psychology: Indications and suggestions for theory, research, and practice given at the annual meeting of The Association for Development of the Person-Centered Approach, May 27-31, 1993, Maryville College, Maryville, TN.

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  8. Transcript of therapy session by Douglas Bower

    Author: 

    Douglas Bower

    Abstract: 

    It is our intention to include a demonstration transcript each issue. The transcript for this
    issue is provided by Doug Bower who has available several sessions of dffirent therapists and
    clients. Doug explains this in his introduction. The client and therapist gave permission to
    publish the transcript anonymously. They offer brief comments on the session. JDB

    The research project from which this transcript was taken was part of the requirements for a
    degree in pastoral counseling. I wanted to know what client-centered therapy looked like ard to
    develop a sense of what it meant to do therapy.

    The purpose of the study was to accomplish the following subjective goals for myself: I ) To
    better understand the person-centered theory of Carl Rogers; 2) To be able to articulate my
    understanding of the theory; 3) To begin to develop expertise in the utilization of the person-centered
    approach; and 4) To be able to draw implications from the person- centered theory for the
    ministry of pastoral counseling.

    Those therapists who were asked to participate had associated with Rogers, regarded themselves
    as being person- centered practitioners, and were recognized by others as advocates of the
    person-centered approach.

    We asked: 1) for a tape of a session which the therapist viewed as typical of his or her work;
    2) for the therapist to complete a brief questionnaire; 3) that the client also fill out a brief
    questionnaire; and 4) that the client complete an abridged form of the Barrett Lennard Relationship
    Inventory.

    Six tapes were received with the accompanying materials. That material was written up and
    the verbatim therapy transcript in this paper came from that study.

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  9. Corrections. Human science and the person-centered approach: An inquiry into the inner process of significant change within individuals

    Author: 

    Robert Barth

    Abstract: 

    The following materials are corrections from the last issue by the publisher.

    These corrections consist of the identification and correction of several pages from the Barth & Sanford article,

    Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within Individuals. The printing skipped several pages of the final diskette copy and incorrect insertions of those pages may have distracted from the meaning and clarity of the article. Readers will be able to substitute these corrections in the original article.

    John K. Wood's article, The Person-Centered Approach's Greatest Weakness: Not Using its Strength, is repeated in its entirety. One page was left out and other pages substituted during the printing. This resulted in considerable confusion to some readers.

    Several other articles also had their content distracted from when quotes were not indented and several other format problems occurred.

    The editors and publisher apologize for these problems. Final galley proofing by authors and closer attention to the technology should eliminate such errors in the future.

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  10. Corrections. The person-centered approach's greatest weakness: not using its strength.

    Author: 

    John Keith Wood

    Abstract: 

    The following materials are corrections from the last issue by the publisher.

    These corrections consist of the identification and correction of several pages from the Barth & Sanford article,

    Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within Individuals. The printing skipped several pages of the final diskette copy and incorrect insertions of those pages may have distracted from the meaning and clarity of the article. Readers will be able to substitute these corrections in the original article.

    John K. Wood's article, The Person-Centered Approach's Greatest Weakness: Not Using its Strength, is repeated in its entirety. One page was left out and other pages substituted during the printing. This resulted in considerable confusion to some readers.

    Several other articles also had their content distracted from when quotes were not indented and several other format problems occurred.

    The editors and publisher apologize for these problems. Final galley proofing by authors and closer attention to the technology should eliminate such errors in the future.

    Download: